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Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click

Desalination is an inter-disciplinary journal publishing high quality papers on desalination materials, processes and related technologies.

Desalination welcomes submissions detailing work that is clearly connected to water desalting including applications of desalination to seawater, groundwater and waste waters, such as thermal, membrane, sorption and hybrid processes.

Design, technical, economic and regulatory analyses of full-scale plants. Energy consumption and energy recovery; Environmental issues related to desalination; Hybrid desalination processes; Membrane desalination processes; New membrane/material and the impact on desalination performance; Performance aspects, for example causes, consequences and countermeasures of fouling and scaling; Recovery of resources from brines; Related systems to desalination such as pre-treatment, post-treatment, integrated plants and brine disposal; Renewable energy applications in desalination; Thermal desalination processes; Transport and process modelling in desalination; Electrodialysis desalination process; Novel desalination technologies and processes. Recovery of resources from brines and issues related to brine mining; Resource recovery for a circular economy in water reuse and desalination; Hydrogen with water industries; Emerging contaminants using desalination membranes and technologies; *Authors are requested to complete a Review Proposal Form for Editorial approval prior to submission of the review article. Proposals can be submitted to Prof. Tao He ( [email protected] ) and Prof. Ho Kyong Shon ( [email protected] ).

Your Paper Your Way We now differentiate between the requirements for new and revised submissions. You may choose to submit your manuscript as a single Word or PDF file to be used in the refereeing process. Only when your paper is at the revision stage, will you be requested to put your paper in to a 'correct format' for acceptance and provide the items required for the publication of your article. To find out more, please visit the Preparation section below.

Types of paper The Journal publishes Full Text Papers, Short Communications, State-of-the-Art Reviews and Letters to Editors. Prospective Review authors are requested to contact one of the Editors prior to submission. Article Types A Short Communications is a concise but complete description of a limited investigation, which will not be included in a later paper. Short Communications should be as completely documented, both by reference to the literature and description of the experimental procedures employed, as a regular paper. They should not exceed 4-6 printed pages but must include complete descriptions of any investigation of the research which must be cutting-edge and novel with knowledge that warrants speedy communication to the readership

Ensure that the following items are present:

All necessary files have been uploaded: Manuscript : • Include keywords • All figures (include relevant captions) • All tables (including titles, description, footnotes) • Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided • Indicate clearly if color should be used for any figures in print Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable) Research Data Supplemental files (where applicable)

For further information, visit our Support Center .

Declaration of competing interest Corresponding authors, on behalf of all the authors of a submission, must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. All authors, including those without competing interests to declare, should provide the relevant information to the corresponding author (which, where relevant, may specify they have nothing to declare). Corresponding authors should then use this tool to create a shared statement and upload to the submission system at the Attach Files step. Please do not convert the .docx template to another file type. Author signatures are not required.

Preprints Please note that preprints can be shared anywhere at any time, in line with Elsevier's sharing policy . Sharing your preprints e.g. on a preprint server will not count as prior publication (see ' Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication ' for more information).

During submission to Editorial Manager, you can choose to release your manuscript publicly as a preprint on the preprint server SSRN once it enters peer-review with the journal. Your choice will have no effect on the editorial process or outcome with the journal. Please note that the corresponding author is expected to seek approval from all co-authors before agreeing to release the manuscript publicly on SSRN.

For more information about posting to SSRN , please consult the SSRN Terms of Use and FAQs .

Reporting sex- and gender-based analyses Reporting guidance For research involving or pertaining to humans, animals or eukaryotic cells, investigators should integrate sex and gender-based analyses (SGBA) into their research design according to funder/sponsor requirements and best practices within a field. Authors should address the sex and/or gender dimensions of their research in their article. In cases where they cannot, they should discuss this as a limitation to their research's generalizability. Importantly, authors should explicitly state what definitions of sex and/or gender they are applying to enhance the precision, rigor and reproducibility of their research and to avoid ambiguity or conflation of terms and the constructs to which they refer (see Definitions section below). Authors can refer to the Sex and Gender Equity in Research (SAGER) guidelines and the SAGER guidelines checklist . These offer systematic approaches to the use and editorial review of sex and gender information in study design, data analysis, outcome reporting and research interpretation - however, please note there is no single, universally agreed-upon set of guidelines for defining sex and gender.

Author contributions For transparency, we encourage authors to submit an author statement file outlining their individual contributions to the paper using the relevant CRediT roles: Conceptualization; Data curation; Formal analysis; Funding acquisition; Investigation; Methodology; Project administration; Resources; Software; Supervision; Validation; Visualization; Roles/Writing - original draft; Writing - review & editing. Authorship statements should be formatted with the names of authors first and CRediT role(s) following. More details and an example .

Article transfer service This journal uses the Elsevier Article Transfer Service to find the best home for your manuscript. This means that if an editor feels your manuscript is more suitable for an alternative journal, you might be asked to consider transferring the manuscript to such a journal. The recommendation might be provided by a Journal Editor, a dedicated Scientific Managing Editor , a tool assisted recommendation, or a combination. If you agree, your manuscript will be transferred, though you will have the opportunity to make changes to the manuscript before the submission is complete. Please note that your manuscript will be independently reviewed by the new journal. More information .

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

Author rights As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. More information .

Role of the funding source You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement, it is recommended to state this.

Elsevier Researcher Academy Researcher Academy is a free e-learning platform designed to support early and mid-career researchers throughout their research journey. The "Learn" environment at Researcher Academy offers several interactive modules, webinars, downloadable guides and resources to guide you through the process of writing for research and going through peer review. Feel free to use these free resources to improve your submission and navigate the publication process with ease.

Submission Submission to this journal proceeds totally online. Use the following guidelines to prepare your article. Via the homepage of this journal ( ) you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of the various files. The system automatically converts source files to a single Adobe Acrobat PDF version of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail and via the author's homepage, removing the need for a hard-copy paper trail.

NEW SUBMISSIONS Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts your files to a single PDF file, which is used in the peer-review process. As part of the Your Paper Your Way service, you may choose to submit your manuscript as a single file to be used in the refereeing process. This can be a PDF file or a Word document, in any format or lay-out that can be used by referees to evaluate your manuscript. It should contain high enough quality figures for refereeing. If you prefer to do so, you may still provide all or some of the source files at the initial submission. Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be uploaded separately.

Formatting requirements There are no strict formatting requirements but all manuscripts must contain the essential elements needed to convey your manuscript, for example Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusions, Artwork and Tables with Captions. If your article includes any Videos and/or other Supplementary material, this should be included in your initial submission for peer review purposes. Divide the article into clearly defined sections.

Peer review This journal operates a single anonymized review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. Editors are not involved in decisions about papers which they have written themselves or have been written by family members or colleagues or which relate to products or services in which the editor has an interest. Any such submission is subject to all of the journal's usual procedures, with peer review handled independently of the relevant editor and their research groups. More information on types of peer review .

Use of word processing software Regardless of the file format of the original submission, at revision you must provide us with an editable file of the entire article. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier ). See also the section on Electronic artwork. To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Subdivision - numbered sections Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

Material and methods Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.

Results Results should be clear and concise.

Conclusions The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

Essential title page information • Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible. • Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. You can add your name between parentheses in your own script behind the English transliteration. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author. • Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. This responsibility includes answering any future queries about Methodology and Materials. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author. • Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

Highlights should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point).

Graphical abstract Although a graphical abstract is optional, its use is encouraged as it draws more attention to the online article. The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. You can view Example Graphical Abstracts on our information site.

Abbreviations Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.

Formatting of funding sources List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance to funder's requirements:

It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Footnotes Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article.

Electronic artwork General points • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork. • Preferred fonts: Arial (or Helvetica), Times New Roman (or Times), Symbol, Courier. • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text. • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files. • Indicate per figure if it is a single, 1.5 or 2-column fitting image. • For Word submissions only, you may still provide figures and their captions, and tables within a single file at the revision stage. • Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be provided in separate source files.

Color artwork Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF) or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) in addition to color reproduction in print. Further information on the preparation of electronic artwork .

Tables Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed either next to the relevant text in the article, or on separate page(s) at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules and shading in table cells.

Citation in text Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

A DOI is guaranteed never to change, so you can use it as a permanent link to any electronic article. An example of a citation using DOI for an article not yet in an issue is: VanDecar J.C., Russo R.M., James D.E., Ambeh W.B., Franke M. (2003). Aseismic continuation of the Lesser Antilles slab beneath northeastern Venezuela. Journal of Geophysical Research, Please note the format of such citations should be in the same style as all other references in the paper.

Preprint references Where a preprint has subsequently become available as a peer-reviewed publication, the formal publication should be used as the reference. If there are preprints that are central to your work or that cover crucial developments in the topic, but are not yet formally published, these may be referenced. Preprints should be clearly marked as such, for example by including the word preprint, or the name of the preprint server, as part of the reference. The preprint DOI should also be provided.

Reference formatting There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the article number or pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following examples:

Journal abbreviations source Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations .

Data visualization Include interactive data visualizations in your publication and let your readers interact and engage more closely with your research. Follow the instructions here to find out about available data visualization options and how to include them with your article.

Research data This journal requires and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

Data linking If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that gives them a better understanding of the research described.

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

Research Elements This journal enables you to publish research objects related to your original research – such as data, methods, protocols, software and hardware – as an additional paper in Research Elements.

During submission, you will be alerted to the opportunity to prepare and submit a Research Elements article.

Data statement To foster transparency, we require you to state the availability of your data in your submission if your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post. This may also be a requirement of your funding body or institution. You will have the opportunity to provide a data statement during the submission process. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page ..

Online proof correction To ensure a fast publication process of the article, we kindly ask authors to provide us with their proof corrections within two days. Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors. If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility. visitor survey

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Desalination is the premier international journal dedicated to communicating the latest developments in desalination and advanced water purification including: theoretical and applied research, technological and industrial development, and the experience of operators and users. Desalination welcomes submissions describing use of desalting technologies such as thermal, membrane, sorption and hybrid processes to all aspects of water purification. In addition, the journal considers exceptional research on new desalination materials, processes and technologies; transport and process modeling; energy consumption, renewable energy and energy recovery; pre-treatment, post-treatment and integrated systems; causes, consequences, and countermeasures of fouling and scaling; and technical, economic, and regulatory analyses of full-scale plants. Read Less

Desalination is the premier international journal dedicated to communicating the latest developments in desalination and advanced water purification including: theoretical and applied research, technological and industrial development, and the experience of operators and users...... Read More

Water Science and Technology

Mechanical Engineering

General Chemical Engineering

General Chemistry

General Materials Science

Environmental Science

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Journal of Hispanic Higher Education template (SAGE)

SciSpace is a very innovative solution to the formatting problem and existing providers, such as Mendeley or Word did not really evolve in recent years.

- Andreas Frutiger, Researcher, ETH Zurich, Institute for Biomedical Engineering

(Before submission check for plagiarism via Turnitin)

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Frequently asked questions

1. can i write desalination in latex.

Absolutely not! Our tool has been designed to help you focus on writing. You can write your entire paper as per the Desalination guidelines and auto format it.

2. Do you follow the Desalination guidelines?

Yes, the template is compliant with the Desalination guidelines. Our experts at SciSpace ensure that. If there are any changes to the journal's guidelines, we'll change our algorithm accordingly.

3. Can I cite my article in multiple styles in Desalination?

Of course! We support all the top citation styles, such as APA style, MLA style, Vancouver style, Harvard style, and Chicago style. For example, when you write your paper and hit autoformat, our system will automatically update your article as per the Desalination citation style.

4. Can I use the Desalination templates for free?

Sign up for our free trial, and you'll be able to use all our features for seven days. You'll see how helpful they are and how inexpensive they are compared to other options, Especially for Desalination.

5. Can I use a manuscript in Desalination that I have written in MS Word?

Yes. You can choose the right template, copy-paste the contents from the word document, and click on auto-format. Once you're done, you'll have a publish-ready paper Desalination that you can download at the end.

6. How long does it usually take you to format my papers in Desalination?

It only takes a matter of seconds to edit your manuscript. Besides that, our intuitive editor saves you from writing and formatting it in Desalination.

7. Where can I find the template for the Desalination?

It is possible to find the Word template for any journal on Google. However, why use a template when you can write your entire manuscript on SciSpace , auto format it as per Desalination's guidelines and download the same in Word, PDF and LaTeX formats? Give us a try!.

8. Can I reformat my paper to fit the Desalination's guidelines?

Of course! You can do this using our intuitive editor. It's very easy. If you need help, our support team is always ready to assist you.

9. Desalination an online tool or is there a desktop version?

SciSpace's Desalination is currently available as an online tool. We're developing a desktop version, too. You can request (or upvote) any features that you think would be helpful for you and other researchers in the "feature request" section of your account once you've signed up with us.

10. I cannot find my template in your gallery. Can you create it for me like Desalination?

Sure. You can request any template and we'll have it setup within a few days. You can find the request box in Journal Gallery on the right side bar under the heading, "Couldn't find the format you were looking for like Desalination?”

11. What is the output that I would get after using Desalination?

After writing your paper autoformatting in Desalination, you can download it in multiple formats, viz., PDF, Docx, and LaTeX.

12. Is Desalination's impact factor high enough that I should try publishing my article there?

To be honest, the answer is no. The impact factor is one of the many elements that determine the quality of a journal. Few of these factors include review board, rejection rates, frequency of inclusion in indexes, and Eigenfactor. You need to assess all these factors before you make your final call.

13. What is Sherpa RoMEO Archiving Policy for Desalination?


14. What are the most common citation types In Desalination?

15. how do i submit my article to the desalination, 16. can i download desalination in endnote format.

Yes, SciSpace provides this functionality. After signing up, you would need to import your existing references from Word or Bib file to SciSpace. Then SciSpace would allow you to download your references in Desalination Endnote style according to Elsevier guidelines.

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Full experimental details must be provided so that the results can be reproduced. JMSE requires that authors publish all experimental controls and make full datasets available where possible (see the guidelines on Supplementary Materials and references to unpublished data).

Manuscripts submitted to JMSE should neither be published previously nor be under consideration for publication in another journal. The main article types are listed below and a comprehensive list of article types can be found here.

Article: These are original research manuscripts. The work should report scientifically sound experiments and provide a substantial amount of new information. The article should include the most recent and relevant references in the field. The structure should include an Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusions (optional) sections, with a suggested minimum word count of 4000 words. Please refer to the journal webpages for specific instructions and templates.

Review: Reviews offer a comprehensive analysis of the existing literature within a field of study, identifying current gaps or problems. They should be critical and constructive and provide recommendations for future research. No new, unpublished data should be presented. The structure can include an Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Relevant Sections, Discussion, Conclusions, and Future Directions, with a suggested minimum word count of 4000 words.

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Manuscripts for JMSE should be submitted online at . The submitting author, who is generally the corresponding author, is responsible for the manuscript during the submission and peer-review process. The submitting author must ensure that all eligible co-authors have been included in the author list (read the criteria to qualify for authorship ) and that they have all read and approved the submitted version of the manuscript. To submit your manuscript, register and log in to the submission website . Once you have registered, click here to go to the submission form for JMSE . All co-authors can see the manuscript details in the submission system, if they register and log in using the e-mail address provided during manuscript submission.

Accepted File Formats

Authors are encouraged to use the Microsoft Word template or LaTeX template to prepare their manuscript. Using the template file will substantially shorten the time to complete copy-editing and publication of accepted manuscripts. The total amount of data for all files must not exceed 120 MB. If this is a problem, please contact the Editorial Office [email protected] . Accepted file formats are:

Disclaimer: Usage of these templates is exclusively intended for submission to the journal for peer-review, and strictly limited to this purpose and it cannot be used for posting online on preprint servers or other websites.

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JMSE now accepts free format submission:

Cover Letter

A cover letter must be included with each manuscript submission. It should be concise and explain why the content of the paper is significant, placing the findings in the context of existing work. It should explain why the manuscript fits the scope of the journal.

Any prior submissions of the manuscript to MDPI journals must be acknowledged. If this is the case, it is strongly recommended that the previous manuscript ID is provided in the submission system, which will ease your current submission process. The names of proposed and excluded reviewers should be provided in the submission system, not in the cover letter.

All cover letters are required to include the statements:

Author Biography

Authors are encouraged to add a biography (maximum 150 words) to the submission and post it to SciProfiles . This should be a single paragraph and should contain the following points:

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Manuscript Preparation

General considerations.

A graphical abstract (GA) is an image that appears alongside the text abstract in the Table of Contents. In addition to summarizing the content, it should represent the topic of the article in an attention-grabbing way. Moreover, it should not be exactly the same as the Figure in the paper or just a simple superposition of several subfigures. Note that the GA must be original and unpublished artwork. Any postage stamps, currency from any country, or trademarked items should not be included in it.

The GA should be a high-quality illustration or diagram in any of the following formats: PNG, JPEG, TIFF, or SVG. Written text in a GA should be clear and easy to read, using one of the following fonts: Times, Arial, Courier, Helvetica, Ubuntu or Calibri.

The minimum required size for the GA is 560 × 1100 pixels (height × width). The size should be of high quality in order to reproduce well.

Front Matter

These sections should appear in all manuscript types

Research Manuscript Sections

Back Matter

In the text, reference numbers should be placed in square brackets [ ], and placed before the punctuation; for example [1], [1–3] or [1,3]. For embedded citations in the text with pagination, use both parentheses and brackets to indicate the reference number and page numbers; for example [5] (p. 10). or [6] (pp. 101–105).

The reference list should include the full title, as recommended by the ACS style guide. Style files for Endnote and Zotero are available.

References should be described as follows, depending on the type of work:

Preparing Figures, Schemes and Tables

Supplementary Materials, Data Deposit and Software Source Code

MDPI Research Data Policies

MDPI is committed to supporting open scientific exchange and enabling our authors to achieve best practices in sharing and archiving research data. We encourage all authors of articles published in MDPI journals to share their research data. Individual journal guidelines can be found at the journal ‘Instructions for Authors’ page. Data sharing policies concern the minimal dataset that supports the central findings of a published study. Generated data should be publicly available and cited in accordance with journal guidelines.

MDPI data policies are informed by TOP Guidelines and FAIR Principles .

Where ethical, legal or privacy issues are present, data should not be shared. The authors should make any limitations clear in the Data Availability Statement upon submission. Authors should ensure that data shared are in accordance with consent provided by participants on the use of confidential data.

Data Availability Statements provide details regarding where data supporting reported results can be found, including links to publicly archived datasets analyzed or generated during the study.

Below are suggested Data Availability Statements:

Data citation:

Computer Code and Software

For work where novel computer code was developed, authors should release the code either by depositing in a recognized, public repository such as GitHub or uploading as supplementary information to the publication. The name, version, corporation and location information for all software used should be clearly indicated. Please include all the parameters used to run software/programs analyses.

Supplementary Material

Additional data and files can be uploaded as "Supplementary Files" during the manuscript submission process. The supplementary files will also be available to the referees as part of the peer-review process. Any file format is acceptable; however, we recommend that common, non-proprietary formats are used where possible. For more information on supplementary materials, please refer to .

References in Supplementary Files

Citations and References in Supplementary files are permitted provided that they also appear in the reference list of the main text.

Unpublished Data

Restrictions on data availability should be noted during submission and in the manuscript. "Data not shown" should be avoided: authors are encouraged to publish all observations related to the submitted manuscript as Supplementary Material. "Unpublished data" intended for publication in a manuscript that is either planned, "in preparation" or "submitted" but not yet accepted, should be cited in the text and a reference should be added in the References section. "Personal Communication" should also be cited in the text and reference added in the References section. (see also the MDPI reference list and citations style guide).

Remote Hosting and Large Data Sets

Data may be deposited with specialized service providers or institutional/subject repositories, preferably those that use the DataCite mechanism. Large data sets and files greater than 60 MB must be deposited in this way. For a list of other repositories specialized in scientific and experimental data, please consult or . The data repository name, link to the data set (URL) and accession number, doi or handle number of the data set must be provided in the paper. The journal Data also accepts submissions of data set papers.

Deposition of Sequences and Expression Data

New sequence information must be deposited to the appropriate database prior to submission of the manuscript. Accession numbers provided by the database should be included in the submitted manuscript. Manuscripts will not be published until the accession number is provided.

All sequence names and the accession numbers provided by the databases must be provided in the Materials and Methods section of the article.

Deposition of Proteomics Data

Methods used to generate the proteomics data should be described in detail and we encourage authors to adhere to the " Minimum Information About a Proteomics Experiment ". All generated mass spectrometry raw data must be deposited in the appropriate public database such as ProteomeXchange , PRIDE or jPOST . At the time of submission, please include all relevant information in the materials and methods section, such as repository where the data was submitted and link, data set identifier, username and password needed to access the data.

Publication Ethics

Research ethics, research involving human subjects.

When reporting on research that involves human subjects, human material, human tissues, or human data, authors must declare that the investigations were carried out following the rules of the Declaration of Helsinki of 1975 ( ), revised in 2013. According to point 23 of this declaration, an approval from the local institutional review board (IRB) or other appropriate ethics committee must be obtained before undertaking the research to confirm the study meets national and international guidelines. As a minimum, a statement including the project identification code, date of approval, and name of the ethics committee or institutional review board must be stated in Section ‘Institutional Review Board Statement’ of the article.

Example of an ethical statement: "All subjects gave their informed consent for inclusion before they participated in the study. The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, and the protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of XXX (Project identification code)."

For non-interventional studies (e.g. surveys, questionnaires, social media research), all participants must be fully informed if the anonymity is assured, why the research is being conducted, how their data will be used and if there are any risks associated. As with all research involving humans, ethical approval from an appropriate ethics committee must be obtained prior to conducting the study. If ethical approval is not required, authors must either provide an exemption from the ethics committee or are encouraged to cite the local or national legislation that indicates ethics approval is not required for this type of study. Where a study has been granted exemption, the name of the ethics committee which provided this should be stated in Section ‘Institutional Review Board Statement’ with a full explanation regarding why ethical approval was not required.

A written informed consent for publication must be obtained from participating patients. Data relating to individual participants must be described in detail, but private information identifying participants need not be included unless the identifiable materials are of relevance to the research (for example, photographs of participants’ faces that show a particular symptom). Patients’ initials or other personal identifiers must not appear in any images. For manuscripts that include any case details, personal information, and/or images of patients, authors must obtain signed informed consent for publication from patients (or their relatives/guardians) before submitting to an MDPI journal. Patient details must be anonymized as far as possible, e.g., do not mention specific age, ethnicity, or occupation where they are not relevant to the conclusions. A template permission form is available to download. A blank version of the form used to obtain permission (without the patient names or signature) must be uploaded with your submission. Editors reserve the right to reject any submission that does not meet these requirements.

You may refer to our sample form and provide an appropriate form after consulting with your affiliated institution. For the purposes of publishing in MDPI journals, a consent, permission, or release form should include unlimited permission for publication in all formats (including print, electronic, and online), in sublicensed and reprinted versions (including translations and derived works), and in other works and products under open access license. To respect patients’ and any other individual’s privacy, please do not send signed forms. The journal reserves the right to ask authors to provide signed forms if necessary.

If the study reports research involving vulnerable groups, an additional check may be performed. The submitted manuscript will be scrutinized by the editorial office and upon request, documentary evidence (blank consent forms and any related discussion documents from the ethics board) must be supplied. Additionally, when studies describe groups by race, ethnicity, gender, disability, disease, etc., explanation regarding why such categorization was needed must be clearly stated in the article.

Ethical Guidelines for the Use of Animals in Research

The editors will require that the benefits potentially derived from any research causing harm to animals are significant in relation to any cost endured by animals, and that procedures followed are unlikely to cause offense to the majority of readers. Authors should particularly ensure that their research complies with the commonly-accepted '3Rs [1]':

Authors must include details on housing, husbandry and pain management in their manuscript.

For further guidance authors should refer to the Code of Practice for the Housing and Care of Animals Used in Scientific Procedures [2], American Association for Laboratory Animal Science [3] or European Animal Research Association [4].

If national legislation requires it, studies involving vertebrates or higher invertebrates must only be carried out after obtaining approval from the appropriate ethics committee. As a minimum, the project identification code, date of approval and name of the ethics committee or institutional review board should be stated in Section ‘Institutional Review Board Statement’. Research procedures must be carried out in accordance with national and institutional regulations. Statements on animal welfare should confirm that the study complied with all relevant legislation. Clinical studies involving animals and interventions outside of routine care require ethics committee oversight as per the American Veterinary Medical Association. If the study involved client-owned animals, informed client consent must be obtained and certified in the manuscript report of the research. Owners must be fully informed if there are any risks associated with the procedures and that the research will be published. If available, a high standard of veterinary care must be provided. Authors are responsible for correctness of the statements provided in the manuscript.

If ethical approval is not required by national laws, authors must provide an exemption from the ethics committee, if one is available. Where a study has been granted exemption, the name of the ethics committee that provided this should be stated in Section ‘Institutional Review Board Statement’ with a full explanation on why the ethical approval was not required.

If no animal ethics committee is available to review applications, authors should be aware that the ethics of their research will be evaluated by reviewers and editors. Authors should provide a statement justifying the work from an ethical perspective, using the same utilitarian framework that is used by ethics committees. Authors may be asked to provide this even if they have received ethical approval.

MDPI endorses the ARRIVE guidelines ( ) for reporting experiments using live animals. Authors and reviewers must use the ARRIVE guidelines as a checklist, which can be found at . Editors reserve the right to ask for the checklist and to reject submissions that do not adhere to these guidelines, to reject submissions based on ethical or animal welfare concerns or if the procedure described does not appear to be justified by the value of the work presented.

Research Involving Cell Lines

Methods sections for submissions reporting on research with cell lines should state the origin of any cell lines. For established cell lines the provenance should be stated and references must also be given to either a published paper or to a commercial source. If previously unpublished de novo cell lines were used, including those gifted from another laboratory, details of institutional review board or ethics committee approval must be given, and confirmation of written informed consent must be provided if the line is of human origin.

An example of Ethical Statements:

The HCT116 cell line was obtained from XXXX. The MLH1 + cell line was provided by XXXXX, Ltd. The DLD-1 cell line was obtained from Dr. XXXX. The DR-GFP and SA-GFP reporter plasmids were obtained from Dr. XXX and the Rad51K133A expression vector was obtained from Dr. XXXX.

Research Involving Plants

Experimental research on plants (either cultivated or wild) including collection of plant material, must comply with institutional, national, or international guidelines. We recommend that authors comply with the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Convention on the Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora .

For each submitted manuscript supporting genetic information and origin must be provided. For research manuscripts involving rare and non-model plants (other than, e.g., Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana benthamiana, Oryza sativa , or many other typical model plants), voucher specimens must be deposited in an accessible herbarium or museum. Vouchers may be requested for review by future investigators to verify the identity of the material used in the study (especially if taxonomic rearrangements occur in the future). They should include details of the populations sampled on the site of collection (GPS coordinates), date of collection, and document the part(s) used in the study where appropriate. For rare, threatened or endangered species this can be waived but it is necessary for the author to describe this in the cover letter.

Editors reserve the rights to reject any submission that does not meet these requirements.

Torenia fournieri plants were used in this study. White-flowered Crown White (CrW) and violet-flowered Crown Violet (CrV) cultivars selected from ‘Crown Mix’ (XXX Company, City, Country) were kindly provided by Dr. XXX (XXX Institute, City, Country).

Arabidopis mutant lines (SALKxxxx, SAILxxxx,…) were kindly provided by Dr. XXX , institute, city, country).

Clinical Trials Registration


MDPI follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) guidelines which require and recommend registration of clinical trials in a public trials registry at or before the time of first patient enrollment as a condition of consideration for publication.

Purely observational studies do not require registration. A clinical trial not only refers to studies that take place in a hospital or involve pharmaceuticals, but also refer to all studies which involve participant randomization and group classification in the context of the intervention under assessment.

Authors are strongly encouraged to pre-register clinical trials with an international clinical trials register and cite a reference to the registration in the Methods section. Suitable databases include , the EU Clinical Trials Register and those listed by the World Health Organisation International Clinical Trials Registry Platform .

Approval to conduct a study from an independent local, regional, or national review body is not equivalent to prospective clinical trial registration. MDPI reserves the right to decline any paper without trial registration for further peer-review. However, if the study protocol has been published before the enrolment, the registration can be waived with correct citation of the published protocol.

CONSORT Statement

MDPI requires a completed CONSORT 2010 checklist and flow diagram as a condition of submission when reporting the results of a randomized trial. Templates for these can be found here or on the CONSORT website ( ) which also describes several CONSORT checklist extensions for different designs and types of data beyond two group parallel trials. At minimum, your article should report the content addressed by each item of the checklist.

Sex and Gender in Research

We encourage our authors to follow the ‘Sex and Gender Equity in Research – SAGER – guidelines’ and to include sex and gender considerations where relevant. Authors should use the terms sex (biological attribute) and gender (shaped by social and cultural circumstances) carefully in order to avoid confusing both terms. Article titles and/or abstracts should indicate clearly what sex(es) the study applies to. Authors should also describe in the background, whether sex and/or gender differences may be expected; report how sex and/or gender were accounted for in the design of the study; provide disaggregated data by sex and/or gender, where appropriate; and discuss respective results. If a sex and/or gender analysis was not conducted, the rationale should be given in the Discussion. We suggest that our authors consult the full guidelines before submission.

Borders and Territories

Potential disputes over borders and territories may have particular relevance for authors in describing their research or in an author or editor correspondence address, and should be respected. Content decisions are an editorial matter and where there is a potential or perceived dispute or complaint, the editorial team will attempt to find a resolution that satisfies parties involved.

MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Publication Ethics Statement

JMSE is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics ( COPE ). We fully adhere to its Code of Conduct and to its Best Practice Guidelines .

The editors of this journal enforce a rigorous peer-review process together with strict ethical policies and standards to ensure to add high quality scientific works to the field of scholarly publication. Unfortunately, cases of plagiarism, data falsification, image manipulation, inappropriate authorship credit, and the like, do arise. The editors of JMSE take such publishing ethics issues very seriously and are trained to proceed in such cases with a zero tolerance policy.

Authors wishing to publish their papers in JMSE must abide to the following:

Plagiarism includes copying text, ideas, images, or data from another source, even from your own publications, without giving any credit to the original source.

Reuse of text that is copied from another source must be between quotes and the original source must be cited. If a study's design or the manuscript's structure or language has been inspired by previous works, these works must be explicitly cited.

All MDPI submissions are checked for plagiarism using the industry standard software iThenticate. If plagiarism is detected during the peer review process, the manuscript may be rejected. If plagiarism is detected after publication, an investigation will take place and action taken in accordance with our policies.

Irregular manipulation includes: 1) introduction, enhancement, moving, or removing features from the original image; 2) grouping of images that should obviously be presented separately (e.g., from different parts of the same gel, or from different gels); or 3) modifying the contrast, brightness or color balance to obscure, eliminate or enhance some information.

If irregular image manipulation is identified and confirmed during the peer review process, we may reject the manuscript. If irregular image manipulation is identified and confirmed after publication, we may correct or retract the paper.

Our in-house editors will investigate any allegations of publication misconduct and may contact the authors' institutions or funders if necessary. If evidence of misconduct is found, appropriate action will be taken to correct or retract the publication. Authors are expected to comply with the best ethical publication practices when publishing with MDPI.

Citation Policy

Authors should ensure that where material is taken from other sources (including their own published writing) the source is clearly cited and that where appropriate permission is obtained.

Authors should not engage in excessive self-citation of their own work.

Authors should not copy references from other publications if they have not read the cited work.

Authors should not preferentially cite their own or their friends’, peers’, or institution’s publications.

Authors should not cite advertisements or advertorial material.

In accordance with COPE guidelines, we expect that “original wording taken directly from publications by other researchers should appear in quotation marks with the appropriate citations.” This condition also applies to an author’s own work. COPE have produced a discussion document on citation manipulation with recommendations for best practice.

Reviewer Suggestions

During the submission process, please suggest five potential reviewers with the appropriate expertise to review the manuscript. The editors will not necessarily approach these referees. Please provide detailed contact information (address, homepage, phone, e-mail address). The proposed referees should neither be current collaborators of the co-authors nor have published with any of the co-authors of the manuscript within the last five years. Proposed reviewers should be from different institutions to the authors. You may identify appropriate Editorial Board members of the journal as potential reviewers. You may suggest reviewers from among the authors that you frequently cite in your paper.

English Corrections

To facilitate proper peer-reviewing of your manuscript, it is essential that it is submitted in grammatically correct English. Advice on some specific language points can be found here .

MDPI provides minor English editing by native English speakers for all accepted papers, included in the APC. The APC does not cover extensive English editing. Your paper could be returned to you at the English editing stage of the publication process if extensive editing is required. You may choose to use a paid language-editing service, such as MDPI’s Author Services , before submitting your paper for publication. If you use an alternative service that provides a confirmation certificate, please send a copy to the Editorial Office. Authors from economically developing countries or nations should consider registration with AuthorAid , a global research community that provides networking, mentoring, resources and training for researchers.

Preprints and Conference Papers

JMSE accepts submissions that have previously been made available as preprints provided that they have not undergone peer review. A preprint is a draft version of a paper made available online before submission to a journal.

MDPI operates Preprints , a preprint server to which submitted papers can be uploaded directly after completing journal submission. Note that Preprints operates independently of the journal and posting a preprint does not affect the peer review process. Check the Preprints instructions for authors for further information.

Expanded and high-quality conference papers can be considered as articles if they fulfill the following requirements: (1) the paper should be expanded to the size of a research article; (2) the conference paper should be cited and noted on the first page of the paper; (3) if the authors do not hold the copyright of the published conference paper, authors should seek the appropriate permission from the copyright holder; (4) authors are asked to disclose that it is conference paper in their cover letter and include a statement on what has been changed compared to the original conference paper. JMSE does not publish pilot studies or studies with inadequate statistical power.

Unpublished conference papers that do not meet the above conditions are recommended to be submitted to the Proceedings Series journals .

MDPI follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors ( ICMJE ) guidelines which state that, in order to qualify for authorship of a manuscript, the following criteria should be observed:

Those who contributed to the work but do not qualify for authorship should be listed in the acknowledgments. More detailed guidance on authorship is given by the International Council of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) .

Any change to the author list should be approved by all authors including any who have been removed from the list. The corresponding author should act as a point of contact between the editor and the other authors and should keep co-authors informed and involve them in major decisions about the publication. We reserve the right to request confirmation that all authors meet the authorship conditions.

For more details about authorship please check MDPI ethics website .

Reviewers Recommendation

Authors can recommend potential reviewers. Journal editors will check to make sure there are no conflicts of interest before contacting those reviewers, and will not consider those with competing interests. Reviewers are asked to declare any conflicts of interest. Authors can also enter the names of potential peer reviewers they wish to exclude from consideration in the peer review of their manuscript, during the initial submission progress. The editorial team will respect these requests so long as this does not interfere with the objective and thorough assessment of the submission.

Editorial Independence

Lack of interference with editorial decisions.

Editorial independence is of utmost importance and MDPI does not interfere with editorial decisions. All articles published by MDPI are peer reviewed and assessed by our independent editorial boards, and MDPI staff are not involved in decisions to accept manuscripts. When making an editorial decision, we expect the academic editor to make their decision based only upon:

In all of our journals, in every aspect of operation, MDPI policies are informed by the mission to make science and research findings open and accessible as widely and rapidly as possible.

Editors and Editorial Staff as Authors

Editorial staff or editors shall not be involved in processing their own academic work. Submissions authored by editorial staff/editors will be assigned to at least two independent outside reviewers. Decisions will be made by other Editorial Board Members who do not have a conflict of interest with the author. Journal staff are not involved in the processing of their own work submitted to any MDPI journals.

Conflicts of Interest

According to The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, “Authors should avoid entering into agreements with study sponsors, both for-profit and non-profit, that interfere with authors’ access to all of the study’s data or that interfere with their ability to analyze and interpret the data and to prepare and publish manuscripts independently when and where they choose.”

All authors must disclose all relationships or interests that could inappropriately influence or bias their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include but are not limited to financial interests (such as membership, employment, consultancies, stocks/shares ownership, honoraria, grants or other funding, paid expert testimonies and patent-licensing arrangements) and non-financial interests (such as personal or professional relationships, affiliations, personal beliefs).

Authors can disclose potential conflicts of interest via the online submission system during the submission process. Declarations regarding conflicts of interest can also be collected via the MDPI disclosure form . The corresponding author must include a summary statement in the manuscript in a separate section “Conflicts of Interest” placed just before the reference list. The statement should reflect all the collected potential conflicts of interest disclosures in the form.

See below for examples of disclosures:

Conflicts of Interest: Author A has received research grants from Company A. Author B has received a speaker honorarium from Company X and owns stocks in Company Y. Author C has been involved as a consultant and expert witness in Company Z. Author D is the inventor of patent X.

If no conflicts exist, the authors should state:

Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Editorial Procedures and Peer-Review

Initial Checks

All submitted manuscripts received by the Editorial Office will be checked by a professional in-house Managing Editor to determine whether they are properly prepared and whether they follow the ethical policies of the journal. Manuscripts that do not fit the journal's ethics policy or do not meet the standards of the journal will be rejected before peer-review. Manuscripts that are not properly prepared will be returned to the authors for revision and resubmission. After these checks, the Managing Editor will consult the journals’ Editor-in-Chief or Associate Editors to determine whether the manuscript fits the scope of the journal and whether it is scientifically sound. No judgment on the potential impact of the work will be made at this stage. Reject decisions at this stage will be verified by the Editor-in-Chief .


Once a manuscript passes the initial checks, it will be assigned to at least two independent experts for peer-review. A single-blind review is applied, where authors' identities are known to reviewers. Peer review comments are confidential and will only be disclosed with the express agreement of the reviewer.

In the case of regular submissions, in-house assistant editors will invite experts, including recommendations by an academic editor. These experts may also include Editorial Board Members and Guest Editors of the journal. Potential reviewers suggested by the authors may also be considered. Reviewers should not have published with any of the co-authors during the past three years and should not currently work or collaborate with any of the institutions of the co-authors of the submitted manuscript.

Optional Open Peer-Review

The journal operates optional open peer-review: Authors are given the option for all review reports and editorial decisions to be published alongside their manuscript. In addition, reviewers can sign their review, i.e., identify themselves in the published review reports. Authors can alter their choice for open review at any time before publication, but once the paper has been published changes will only be made at the discretion of the Publisher and Editor-in-Chief . We encourage authors to take advantage of this opportunity as proof of the rigorous process employed in publishing their research. To guarantee impartial refereeing, the names of referees will be revealed only if the referees agree to do so, and after a paper has been accepted for publication.

Editorial Decision and Revision

All the articles, reviews and communications published in MDPI journals go through the peer-review process and receive at least two reviews. The in-house editor will communicate the decision of the academic editor, which will be one of the following:

All reviewer comments should be responded to in a point-by-point fashion. Where the authors disagree with a reviewer, they must provide a clear response.

Author Appeals

Authors may appeal a rejection by sending an e-mail to the Editorial Office of the journal. The appeal must provide a detailed justification, including point-by-point responses to the reviewers' and/or Editor's comments using an appeal form . Appeals can only be submitted following a “reject and decline resubmission” decision and should be submitted within three months from the decision date. Failure to meet these criteria will result in the appeal not being considered further. The Managing Editor will forward the manuscript and related information (including the identities of the referees) to a designated Editorial Board Member . The Academic Editor being consulted will be asked to provide an advisory recommendation on the manuscript and may recommend acceptance, further peer-review, or uphold the original rejection decision. This decision will then be validated by the Editor-in-Chief . A reject decision at this stage is final and cannot be reversed.

Production and Publication

Once accepted, the manuscript will undergo professional copy-editing, English editing, proofreading by the authors, final corrections, pagination, and, publication on the website.

Promoting Equity, Diversity and Inclusiveness Within MDPI Journals

Our Managing Editors encourage the Editors-in-Chief and Associate Editors to appoint diverse expert Editorial Boards. This is also reflective in our multi-national and inclusive workplace. We are proud to create equal opportunities without regard to gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, age, religion, or socio-economic status. There is no place for discrimination in our workplace and editors of MDPI journals are to uphold these principles in high regard.

Further Information

Mdpi initiatives, follow mdpi.


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Writing a Cover Letter For Your Scientific Manuscript

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Clarifying Your Author Guidelines - December 5, 2014 ISMTE Presentation

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The cover letter is your chance to lobby on behalf of your manuscript. The letter is far from just a formality and should be written with the same care as your manuscript’s text (if not more). Ultimately, your cover letter is designed to influence the decision of the editor to send your manuscript out for peer review. Sometimes great science will be reviewed regardless of the cover letter, but a well written cover letter is useful for the vast majority of scientists who want to make their research stand out. American Journal Experts wishes you the best of luck with your research!


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Open Access

Instructions for Authors

General information.

Open Access Publication

All accepted Water Reuse papers are published open access, and freely available on  our website  upon payment of the Article Processing Charge (APC). APCs for Water Reuse are $2150 / £1750 / €1975. For more information and a full list of IWA Publishing APCs,  click here . Usage of papers published open access by third parties is defined by the type of Creative Commons user licence selected by the author (see all options on our  Open Access page ). Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive Licence Agreement' (for more information see our  Rights and Permissions page ). Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user licence. IWA Publishing supports authors in the developing world through its relationship with  Research4Life . Authors from  Research4Life’s Group A list  are exempt from payment of the APC and authors from Research4Life's Group B list are entitled to a 50% APC waiver.

Ethics in Publishing

You will be required to accept the IWA Publishing Ethics Statement for Authors when you submit your paper to the journal. The statement covers authorship, originality and conflicts of interest. Please read this statement to ensure your submission complies .

Note that conference proceedings are a form of publication.

To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck .

Author Rights

For the rights of the author to reuse your work, please refer to the Rights and Permissions page .

Role of the Funding Source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Author's Discount

IWA Publishing journal authors are entitled to a 25% discount on IWA Publishing books and reports.

Author Inquiries

For further advice please contact:

Journals Office, IWA Publishing, Republic - Units 1.04 & 1.05 Export Building, 1 Clove Crescent, London, E14 2BA

Tel: +44 (0)207 654 5500; E-mail


Types of Paper

Water Reuse , now fully open access, welcomes the submission of original research and review papers. We are flexible in the length of submissions however, we encourage authors to be concise in their work, and bear in mind the recommended word limits for each article type below.

(a) Research Papers : These papers are fully documented, interpreted accounts of significant findings of original research. Research Papers should be between 5,000 and 10,000 words (less 350 words for each normal-sized figure or table you include).

(b) Review Papers: These are critical and comprehensive reviews that provide new insights or interpretation of a subject through thorough and systematic evaluation of available evidence. They should not normally exceed 10,000 words (less 350 words for each normal-sized figure or table you include).

Use of Word Processing Software

The preferred format for electronic versions is Microsoft Word, though we can accept most other word-processing packages. Authors should not add their own macros. Please supply only the final version of your file (with no hidden text), to avoid any risk of old versions of the text being used in error.

The source files of figures are required if a paper is accepted and you should embed the figures in the main text (see below).

Article Structure

Do not number or letter section headings.

Use line numbering throughout your paper.

All papers should be clearly structured. For  Review Papers,  and articles which do not report primary research, the organisation of the paper can be different. It is important that a Review be more than a summary of the literature; an in-depth critical discussion is essential for acceptance of a Review Paper.

All articles reporting primary research must comprise :

Introduction: Describing the background of the work and its aims.

Methods : A brief description of the methods/techniques used (the principles of these methods should not be described if readers can be directed to easily accessible references or standard texts).

Results and Discussion : A clear presentation of experimental results obtained, highlighting any trends or points of interest. (Results and discussion can be separate sections, if needed).

Conclusions : A brief explanation of the significance and implications of the work reported.

Where restrictions apply, submissions should be accompanied by a statement of the conditions of access and permitted reuse of the data.  

Article Template

If needed, a template on how to format your paper can be found here .

Nomenclature and Units

Please take care that all terminology and notation used will be widely understood. Abbreviations and acronyms should be spelled out in full at their first occurrence in the text. In describing wastewater treatment processes authors should consult Corominas et al. (2010). New framework for standardized notation in wastewater treatment modelling . Water Science & Technology , 61 (4), 841-857.

SI units are strongly recommended. If non-SI units must be used, SI equivalents (or conversion factors) must also be given. Please use the spellings 'litre' and 'metre' (a 'meter' is a measuring instrument).

Please use a decimal point rather than a comma in numbers (i.e. 3.142 not 3,142).

Write equations in dimensionless form or in metric units. Please use italic letters to denote variables (in text or in displayed equations).

All figures and tables should be embedded in the text where possible, unless otherwise requested by the publisher.

Figures should appear in numerical order, be described in the body of the text and be positioned close to where they are first cited. Each figure should have a caption which describes the illustration, and that can be understood independently of the main text. The caption should be given in the text, and not on the figure itself.

Make sure all figures and tables will fit inside the text area. Because figures may be resized in the course of production please use scale bars and not magnification factors.

Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules.

Papers must be in good, grammatically correct English. If your paper cannot be understood, it will be rejected before peer review. If English is not your native language, you should seek the assistance of a colleague or professional translator.

In addition, you should always have your manuscript read by at least two other people to avoid typing errors before submitting to a journal.

Articles should be provided in electronic form (uploaded to our online submission site here ) and comply with the instructions below. There are additional instructions on how to submit a paper through Editorial Manager here .

This journal has no submission fee, but an APC is payable should the submission be accepted for publication.

Referencing instructions:

Citations in text:

Use surname of author and year of publication: Jones (2002) or (Jones 2002).

Insert initials only if there are two different authors with the same surname and same year of publication.

Two or more years in parentheses following an author's name are cited in ascending order of year, and two or more references published in the same year by the same author are differentiated by letters a, b, c, etc. For example: Brown (1999, 2002, 2003a, b).

Different references cited together should be in date order, for example: (Smith 1959; Thomson & Jones 2008; Green 2015).

If a paper has been accepted for publication but has not been published the term "(in press)" should be used instead of a date.

If a paper has been submitted but not definitely accepted the term "(submitted)" should be used. If the paper is still being prepared the term "(in preparation)" should be used.

The abbreviation " et al. " should be used in the text when there are more than two co-authors of a cited paper.

If you decide to use online referencing software, then you can use the Harvard referencing option.

Please double-check: every citation in the text must match up to an entry in the reference list and vice-versa.

Reference Links

We use digital object identifiers (DOIs) to link references to the source material. This can only be done if the data provided in the references are correct. Please be very careful, especially when copying references, to ensure that surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination are all correct. Please include DOIs where available.

List of References

References should be listed alphabetically at the end of the paper. Although " et al. " is preferable in the text, in the list of references all authors should be given.

Journal reference style:

Zeng R. J., Lemaire R., Yuan Z. & Keller J. 2004 A novel wastewater treatment process: simultaneous nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal. Water Science and Technology , 50(10), 163-170.

Note that to unambiguously identify articles published before 2008 the issue number as well as the volume number is needed.

Book reference styles: (i) article in compilation; (ii) multi-author work; (iii) standard reference; (iv) report; (v) thesis:

(i) McInerney M. J. 1999 Anaerobic metabolism and its regulation. In: Biotechnology , J. Winter (ed.), 2nd edn, Wiley-VCH Verlag, Weinheim, Germany, pp. 455-478.

(ii) Henze M., Harremoës P., LaCour Jansen J. & Arvin E. 1995 Wastewater Treatment: Biological and Chemical Processes . Springer, Heidelberg.

(iii) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater 1998 20th edn, American Public Health Association/American Water Works Association/Water Environment Federation, Washington DC, USA.

(iv) Sobsey M. D. & Pfaender F. K. 2002 Evaluation of the H2S method for Detection of Fecal Contamination of Drinking Water , Report WHO/SDE/WSH/02.08, Water Sanitation and Health Programme, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.

(v) Bell J. 2002 Treatment of Dye Wastewaters in the Anaerobic Baffled Reactor and Characterisation of the Associated Microbial Populations . PhD thesis, Pollution Research Group, University of Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Online References

These should specify the full URL for the reference and give the date on which it was consulted. Please check again to confirm that the work you are citing is still accessible:

Alcock S. J. & Branston L. 2000 SENSPOL: Sensors for Monitoring Water Pollution from Contaminated Land, Landfills and Sediment. (accessed 22 July 2005)

References in languages other than English

These should be accompanied by an English translation of the article title:

Barjenbruch M., Erler C & Steinke M. 2003 Untersuchungen an Abwasserteichanlagen in Sachsen-Anhalt im Jahr 2003 (Investigation on wastewater lagoons in Saxony-Anhalt in 2003) , Report for the Environment Ministry of Saxony-Anhalt, Magdeburg, Germany

Recommendation of new IWA Notation system for wastewater modelling

Water Reuse encourages its authors to use the IWA Notation System for wastewater modelling by Corominas et al. (2010). To further the widespread use of this notation, IWA Publishing decided to make this paper open access.

The notation was developed by a group of distinguished modelers out of a WWTmod2008 workshop and is supported by the IWA Task Groups on Good Modelling Practice (GMP), Benchmarking of Control Strategies (BSM), and the Water Environment Federation (WEF) Modelling Expert Group of the Americas (MEGA). It has also received a wide endorsement within the modelling community.

The new notation will help the community to assist in model communication, allow for direct model comparisons, and facilitate understanding of newly developed models. The paper by Corominas et al. (2010) aims at standardizing naming rules and provides examples for already published models.

We understand that changing notation is difficult when one has become used to represent concepts in a certain way, but the old notation methods had several shortcomings as a result of the much larger body of knowledge that is now available in comparison to the situation when the original notation was developed (Grau et al. , 1987).

The Good Modelling Practice (GMP) Task Group will take on the task to provide assistance with any question that you may have. Please contact the journal office.

Open access link to Corominas et al. (2010) paper:

Corominas, L., Rieger, L., Takács, I., Ekama, G., Hauduc, H., Vanrolleghem, P.A., Oehmen, A., Gernaey, K.V., van Loosdrecht, M.C.M. and Comeau, Y. (2010). New framework for standardized notation in wastewater treatment modelling . Water Science & Technology , 61(4), 841-857.

Grau, P., Sutton, P. M., Henze, M., Elmaleh, S., Grady, C. P. L., Gujer, W. and Koller, J. (1987). Notation for the use in the description of wastewater treatment processes . Water Research , 21(2), 135-139.

Submission Checklist

The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Instruction for Authors for further details of any item.

Ensure that the following items are present:

One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:

All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:

Further considerations:

Special Issue Submissions

When submitting a paper for consideration in a Special Issue, please ensure that you select both the correct article type (Special Issue OA) and then also select the correct Special Issue in the article category.

Peer Review Process

All papers that an Editor sends for review will be peer reviewed by a minimum of two independent reviewers. You can see the full process here . More information on how to review a paper can be found here . Instructions on how to submit a review in Editorial Manager are here .

You are required to submit, with the manuscript, the names and addresses of 3 potential reviewers that can give an independent review. You should make sure that these reviewers are not within your institution and where possible use reviewers from different countries. If in doubt please look at your references.

Major corrections cannot be undertaken by either the editor or the publishers; if your paper is not prepared in accordance with these instructions it may not be considered further. Where requested to do so in the course of the peer review process, authors must revise their papers within one month of the request; otherwise the contribution will be considered withdrawn.

Changes to Authorship

If you wish to add, delete or rearrange the authors of your accepted paper:

Before online publication: The corresponding author should contact the Journals Manager, and provide (a) the reason for the change, and (b) the written consent of all co-authors, including the authors being added or removed. Please note that your paper will not be published until the changes have been agreed.

After online publication: Any requests to correct an error made with the author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum. Changes to the author list will not be made for any other reason after publication.

After Acceptance

Use of the Digital Object Identifier

The DOI is a unique set of letters and numbers which can be used to cite and link to your paper online. The DOI is assigned to your paper when the first proof is generated, and it will not change, meaning you can cite an Uncorrected Proof immediately using the DOI.

The corresponding author will be notified via the online system when proofs are ready. Any corrections must be returned within one week of receipt and should only cover typesetting errors. Proofreading is the sole responsibility of the authors.

As soon as the article has been published online, the corresponding author will receive a customized link to the article, which they are encouraged to share via any communication channel, including e-mail and social media. The corresponding author will receive an electronic file of the final version of the article when it has been published in an issue. Additionally, hardcopy offprints can be ordered using the Offprint Order Form, available from IWA Publishing on request.


You should ensure you check your proofs carefully to avoid errors in the final published article. If, however, you notice a scientifically relevant error in the final version of your article, you should contact the journal office to request a correction. Please ensure you include the manuscript reference number of the article. Relevant reasons for correction include:

Author name change policy

An author may change their name, for example as a result of religious conversion, gender transition, marriage or divorce, and wish for their publication to reflect the change. IWA Publishing will update the article and send the metadata to secondary indexers. IWA Publishing respects authors’ privacy in this regard and, if appropriate, will not inform the article’s co-authors of the change or publish an Erratum or other note. Authors with a name change request should e-mail the Journal Office, including their list of publications that require a change.

FAQ for Authors

Please see our FAQ page here.


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ACS Publishing Center

Author guidelines.

cover letter desalination journal

Last updated: February 07, 2023

Manuscript Submission Requirements Checklist

Scope of the journal, manuscript types, submit with fast format, document templates and format, acceptable software, file designations, and tex/latex, cover letter, manuscript text components, supporting information, research data policy, data requirements, language and editing services, preparing graphics, figure and illustration services, prior publication policy, editorial policies, providing potential reviewer names, manuscript transfer, proofs via acs direct correct, publication date and patent dates, asap publication, post-publication policies, sharing your published article.

Correspondence to the Editor-in-Chief should be addressed to:

Professor Wonyong Choi, Editor-in-Chief, ACS ES&T Engineering

Email: [email protected]

ACS ES&T Engineering publishes high-impact research and review/perspective articles in all areas of environmental technology and engineering through a highly rigorous peer-review process. It is a specialist journal that aims to serve as an international forum for research and innovation around materials-, technologies-, processes-, data analytics- and engineering systems that: manage, protect and remediate air, water and soil quality; treat wastes; recover resources; support effective decision-making within complex engineered systems; and are informed by mechanistic science and analytics that describe complex environmental engineering systems. Papers that present novel, innovative advancements will be considered across the continuum from lab-based discovery to field-based application; case-studies will not be considered at this time. Papers containing experimental and/or theoretical methods and knowledge grounded in engineering principles that are integrated with core knowledge from other disciplines are welcome. Specific topics may include (but are not limited to) the following environmental engineering areas:

The Journal does NOT cover the following areas if they are presented as solitary topics and without making their connection to engineered systems or technological innovation clear:

ACS ES&T Engineering accepts the following manuscript types:  Research Article, Review, Perspective, Correspondence/Rebuttal and Additions and Corrections. A full description of each manuscript type is shown below:

Research Article (flexible length typically up to 8,000 and a maximum of 10,000 word-equivalents; shorter articles as short as 3,000 word-equivalents also accepted).

Research Articles report innovative advances grounded in environmental engineering research that contribute new insights and knowledge applicable to the environmental challenges and opportunities we face today and tomorrow. Article length is flexible and should be determined depending on the nature of the work. Shorter length articles may report on innovative and novel environmental engineering research that is at the proof-of-concept stage and where results reflect a significant advancement. Justification for submission and publication of initial results should be described in the author’s cover letter.

Research articles consist of the following sections: Abstract; Introduction; Experimental/Methods; Results and Discussion; Conclusions; References. The Journal allows some flexibility in formatting and authors may add other sections or use alternative section titles (e.g. Environmental Implications, Engineering Significance instead of Conclusions) or may place the Experimental/Methods section after the Conclusions section. The Experimental/Methods section should include a level of detail that guides the reader on the experimental approach, and details should be placed in supporting information (SI). For example, it would be appropriate to state that analysis was conducted by GC/MS but the details of the protocol (solvent, flow conditions, temperature, etc.) would be in the SI.  Research articles are reviewed initially by editors and then, if appropriate, sent for full peer review. The Editor-in-Chief and Associate Editors, listed in the ACS ES&T Engineering masthead, make final decisions about all research material published in ACS ES&T Engineering .

Review (length limit: up to a maximum of 15,000 word-equivalents). Reviews describe and discuss thoroughly documented developments and issues in environmental engineering research. Reviews should summarize prior research and should also provide insights into the reviewed themes through new analysis and organization of the published literature. Review articles are primarily invited by the editors. Unsolicited review articles may be submitted with permission from the editors.  Proposals for unsolicited review articles should be sent to the journal’s editorial office ( [email protected] ) and include: (1) a brief outline (length limit: 2 pages), with section headings and a short discussion of the proposed content in each section; (2) a list of existing key review articles on the subject published in the past 10 years, with a justification statement describing the contribution of this new review article to the field; (3) a summary of the authors' academic background and research areas with Google Scholar, Web of Science, or Scopus profile; and (4) a list of the authors’ publications related to the review topic. If the proposal is approved by the editors, the authors will be invited to submit a full review. All submitted review articles will undergo full peer review.

Perspective (length limit: typically 5,000 and up to 7,000 word-equivalents). These contributions are reviews of a field or area and are focused rather than comprehensive. Perspective papers will assess the current status of a chosen field with an emphasis toward identifying key progress being made and identifying future research that is needed to advance the field. Perspectives are invited only, and unsolicited perspectives are not considered. Perspective articles will undergo full peer review.

Correspondence/Rebuttal (length limit: 1,000 word-equivalents each including citations). These manuscripts provide scholarly comment on papers appearing in the research section (Research Article, Review, Perspective, Correspondence/Rebuttal, and Additions and Corrections). Correspondence should be submitted within six months of the publication date of the original paper and must raise substantive scientific or technical questions. Correspondence that consists mainly of opinion will not be considered. The author(s) of the original paper will be given an opportunity to respond.  Correspondence on previously published Correspondence will not be considered, and personal invective will not be tolerated. Correspondence/Rebuttal may undergo peer review under the direction of the assigned editor.  The correspondence and the rebuttal will be published consecutively in the same issue.

Additions and Corrections (Errata) . These contributions may be used by the authors of a paper to correct errors and omissions of consequence that are identified after publication. Readers who also detect errors of consequence in the work of others should contact the corresponding author of the paper in question. Additions and Corrections must be approved by all coauthors before submission.   All Additions and Corrections are subject to editorial approval, and corrections of minor errors or omissions will not be published.

Special Issues ACS ES&T Engineering has a required template that must be completed for all proposals for special issues. If you would like to propose a special issue, please contact the managing editor for more information ( [email protected] ).

While these guidelines will provide basic information on how to prepare and submit the manuscript as well as other critical information about publishing, we also encourage authors to visit the ACS Publishing Center for additional information on everything that is needed to prepare (and review) manuscripts for ACS journals and partner journals, such as:

ACS ES&T Engineering - Quality Expectations

Clearly articulating the importance of your research and the quality of presentation of your manuscript will have an important impact on the ease with which it can undergo peer review and the impression it gives to reviewers of its overall quality.  If your writing is rambling, fails to establish the purpose of the research, provides an incoherent discussion, puzzling figures, or inappropriate scales on graph axes, the technical merits of your research will be less easy to recognize.  Please articulate clearly the purpose of your work, write concisely and with clarity, and provide well thought-out and clearly presented figures and tables with appropriate considerations of the magnitude of error.  This will significantly increase the likelihood that we will publish your research.

Manuscript Preparation

All ACS journals and partner journals have simplified their formatting requirements in favor of a streamlined and standardized review-ready format for an initial manuscript submission. Read more about the requirements and the benefits these serve authors and reviewers here . 

Manuscripts submitted to ACS ES&T Engineering must follow these simple formatting standards:

The use of manuscript templates is not required for ACS ES&T Engineering , but may be useful to consult to approximate how an article will compose.  

Additional generic instructions for submission of manuscripts and Supporting Information are available at the ACS Publishing Center . General information on the preparation of manuscripts may also be found in the ACS Guide to Scholarly Communication . For further support you can reach ACS via email at [email protected] , or by phone at 1-800-227-9919 (USA and Canada) or 1-202-872-4357. 

Length limits . The length limits for each article type are listed in the Article Types section.  Article length can be determined by counting all text, excluding title page, references, and figure/table captions. Next, add 300 words for each small figure, scheme, or table that takes up part of a page. Large multipart figures, extensive tables, detailed maps or chemical pathways taking up a page or more should be counted as 600 words. At the discretion of the assigned editor, some figures or tables may be counted as more than 600 words.

Manuscripts that exceed the length limit will be un-submitted (returned to the Draft section in Paragon Plus) with a request to shorten, or they may be immediately rejected. To reduce length, make the Introduction and Discussion sections more concise. In addition make appropriate use of Supporting Information (SI; see below), which is also readily available to readers of the manuscripts on the ACS ES&T Engineering website.

Authors who believe that exceeding the length limit is essential must include a compelling argument in their cover letters. Ultimately, however, the decision about whether a manuscript that exceeds the recommended length is appropriate for review is made by the assigned editor.

See the list of Acceptable Software and appropriate File Designations to be sure your file types are compatible with ACS Paragon Plus. Information for manuscripts generated from TeX/LaTeX is also available. Please also see Appendix 3 for a list of copyright-compliant graphics programs and graphics websites for the creation of figures, TOC art, and front cover artwork.

A cover letter must accompany every manuscript submission. During the submission process, you may type it or paste it into the submission system, or you may attach it as a file. The cover letter should list the authors and their affiliations, give the manuscript title, and provide complete contact information for all authors. If you have a non-preferred editor, you may explain your reason for making the request in your cover letter. The cover letter must also include a rationale for why your manuscript is appropriate for publication in ACS ES&T Engineering . The environmental impact and/or engineering significance must be described in the letter. A substantial fraction of submissions to ACS ES&T Engineering are not sent out for review because an editor concludes that the manuscript does not meet the journal’s standards for novelty, scientific merit, or environmental importance. The cover letter is your opportunity to convince the editor that this is not the case. Citations of previous related work published within ACS ES&T Engineering also can be useful to the reviewing editor.

Spell out all acronyms on first use in the abstract and in the body of the article. ACS ES&T Engineering does not allow footnotes, with the exception of an author information footnote on the title page and table detail/definition footnotes.

Elements of a Manuscript

The various sections of the manuscript are described in detail below:

Chemical Structures

Web enhanced objects (weo).

Title. Use a brief, specific, and informative title. Keywords in titles assist in effective literature retrieval. If trade names are used, give generic names in parentheses.

Authorship . List the full first name, middle initial(s), and last name of each author. Omit professional and official titles. An author’s affiliation should be based on where they were when the work was performed. When the present address of an author is different, include the new information in a footnote. In a paper with more than one author, the name of the corresponding author, to whom post-publication inquiries should be addressed, carries an asterisk (*). Provide an email address for the corresponding author.

Many Funders and Institutions require that institutional affiliations are identified for all authors listed in the work being submitted. ACS facilitates this requirement by collecting institution information during the manuscript submission process in ACS Paragon Plus (Step 2 in Paragon Plus: Authors and Affiliations).

Include as co-authors all those who have made a substantial contribution to the work.  Addition or deletion of an author (s) after submission of the manuscript requires justification from the corresponding author and is subject to editorial approval.  Deceased persons who meet the criteria for inclusion as coauthors should be included, with an Author Information note indicating the date of death.

Abstract and Keywords .

Abstract.  A 150–200-word clear and concise abstract must accompany Research Articles, Review, and Perspective manuscripts. As a one-paragraph summary, describe the purpose, methods or procedures, significant new results, and implications. Define any abbreviations or acronyms used in the abstract. Include major quantitative data if they can be stated briefly, but do not include background material. Do not include reference numbers in the abstract.

Keywords. List up to five keywords at the end of the abstract page. Authors are encouraged to include keywords that do not appear in the title.

Graphic for Table of Contents (TOC)/Abstract Art . This graphic, required for a Research Article, Review, and Perspective manuscript, appears next to the abstract online and in all versions of the article.  It is also used in other situations in which a representative graphic is needed (e.g. social media). The selected image should give readers a quick visual representation of the essence of the paper. It should be simple and relatively free of text and technical characters, and make use of color for visual impact. Abstract art may include a photograph of a field site or a schematic portraying the central findings of the paper. Please consult a recent issue of the journal for examples. Guidelines for TOC/Abstract Art specifications are also available. Please also see Appendix 3  for a list of approved graphics programs that have acceptable copyright agreements in place for the commercial use of graphics drawn by the author.

All portions of the TOC graphic must have been created by the authors of the paper. Material not actually created by the authors cannot appear in TOC graphics even if the copyright owner of the material does not want credit.

Size requirement = 240-point width by 135-point height (3.25” x 1.75”; approx. 8.25 cm by 4.45 cm)

Additional specifications:


The introduction should clearly and concisely explain the motivation for the work, its importance and originality, where it fits in the development of the field and why it should be of interest to ACS ES&T Engineering readers. Discuss relationships of the study to previously published work, but do not reiterate or provide a complete literature survey. Current findings should not be included or summarized in this section. Introduction sections are typically around 500 words in length.

Experimental/Methods.   Describe pertinent and critical factors involved in the experimental work but avoid excessive description. Details not essential for understanding the paper can be placed in Supporting Information (SI).  Specific experimental methods should be sufficiently detailed for others to repeat the experiments unequivocally. List devices of a specialized nature or instruments that may vary in performance or affect the quality of the data obtained (e.g. spectroscopic resolution), including the vendor. If the procedures are already published, provide citations to previous publications and expand only on differences in the current work.   Authors must emphasize any unexpected, new, and/or significant hazards or risks associated with the reported work and this safety information must be included in the Experimental/Methods section. Authors of studies that include results that are compatible with open access data repositories (e.g., NCBI for genomic data) are expected to upload the data and give the accession information.

Results and Discussion.   Be complete but concise. Discuss your findings, postulate explanations for the data, elucidate models and compare your results with those of others.  Avoid irrelevant comparisons or contrasts, any speculation unsupported by the data presented and verbose discussion. 

Conclusions.   Concisely articulate the important findings of your work and their impact on the field of research, aiming for maximum brevity.

Abbreviations. Specialized abbreviations may be used provided they are placed in parentheses after the word(s) at first point of use.  Do not include a separate Abbreviations list.  Use SI units, and consult the The ACS Style Guide for lists of SI units and preferred forms of commonly used abbreviations.

Acknowledgment.   Include only essential credits to acknowledge financial or professional assistance to the conduct of research.  Sources of financial support must be acknowledged.  Omit academic and social titles.  Statements about author contributions to the work or equal contributions of work should be included as a separate statement.

Funding Sources .  Authors are required to report ALL funding sources and grant/award numbers relevant to their manuscript.  To meet this requirement, the submitting author must enter all sources of funding for ALL authors relevant to the submission in BOTH the Open Funder Registry tool in ACS Paragon Plus submission site, and in the manuscript under acknowledgments. See this page  for complete instructions. 

References.   Literature references in ACS ES&T Engineering must be numbered in order of appearance, and the corresponding numbers placed at the appropriate locations in the text as superscripted numerals. The accuracy of the References is the responsibility of the authors, who are encouraged to avoid references to works that have not been peer reviewed. DOI numbers are helpful but not mandatory unless they are the only identifying information available (e.g. for recently published articles).  Excessive self-citation is not permitted.  Any references in publications that would be difficult for most reviewers to obtain or are unpublished should be uploaded into the ACS ES&T Engineering Paragon Plus submission site as Information for ‘Review Only’.

Examples of reference formats are available here . Authors can also consult The ACS Style Guide for additional information on reference style and format.

Tables and Figures.

Tables and figures should be carefully designed to maximize presentation and comprehension of the experimental data with superfluous information excluded.   Please see Appendix 3  for a list of approved graphics programs and websites that have acceptable copyright agreements in place for commercial use of graphics and images.

Tables . Tables should be simple, concise, and supplement, not duplicate, information presented in the text and figures.  Tables should be embedded in the text at the point of relevance, and be furnished with appropriate titles of one phrase or sentence. The title should be understandable without reference to the text.  Details or definitions should be placed at the bottom as footnotes. Tables should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numbers (i.e. 1, 2, …). Double-space them with wide margins, ensure that each data entry is placed in its own cell, and prepare tables in a consistent format, preferably using a word processor’s table format feature.

Figures. Please see Appendix 2  for further details on how to prepare your figure graphics or Appendix 3 for a list of approved graphics programs and websites that have acceptable copyright agreements in place for the commercial use of drawn graphics and copied images. All figure graphics must be prepared and submitted in digital format and preferably embedded in the text at the point of relevance. Graphics should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numbers (i.e. 1, 2, ) and accompanied by a caption. It is also acceptable to submit separate TIFF, PDF, EPS (vector artwork), or CDX (ChemDraw file) files. If separate graphic files are submitted, they should be named in a manner clearly identifying their function (e.g. Scheme 1, Figure 1). Each separate graphic file must also include the caption for the respective graphic in the manuscript itself.

Each figure graphic should have good resolution, be clear, concise, and complete and use legible font. Colors may be used to enhance graphics. Graphics must meet the journal’s minimum quality standards or will be returned to authors for improvement. Any graphic (figure, chart, scheme or equation) that has appeared in an earlier publication should include a credit line citing the original source.  Authors are responsible for obtaining written permission to re-use this material.

Special requirements for EPS and TIFF files graphics (both when embedded in a Word file and when submitted separately):

In addition, ACS Authoring Services  can prepare your figures, tables and illustrations to the exact specifications of the journal on your behalf. This includes changes to file type, resolution, color, space, font, scale, line weights and layout (to improve readability and professional appearance).

Formulae and Equations . Chemical formulas should be embedded in the text at the point of relevance and should correspond to the The ACS Style Guide . Chemical equations should be balanced and numbered consecutively along with mathematical equations. Mathematical arguments should be as brief as possible.

Chemical Structures.  Chemical structures should be produced with the use of a drawing program such as ChemDraw.

The web editions of ACS journals allow readers to review multimedia attachments such as animations and movies that complement understanding of the research being reported.  WEOs should be uploaded in ACS Paragon Plus with ‘Web Enhanced Object’ selected as the file designation.  Consult the list of compatible WEO formats. 

Supporting Information.   Ancillary data and material of interest mainly to specialists is placed in Supporting Information to shorten the length of text in research manuscripts.  Please see the section on Supporting Information (SI) (Optional) for further details below.

Front Cover Artwork.   ACS ES&T Engineering features a different image on the front cover of each issue. The cover art image is usually related to work that is published in that particular issue of the journal.  Authors are encouraged to submit images to be considered for use on future front covers at the time of submission of their revised manuscript.

Images to be considered for the cover should be eye-catching, imaginative and original.  Unpublished images are encouraged.  Covers should be submitted as an electronic file in eps, tif, jpg, or png format (not pdf or ppt), and be approximately 8 inches wide and 11 inches high, with a minimum resolution of 300 dpi (color) (2400 x 3300 pixels). The file should be sent as a layered file to enable art enhancement of individual elements. The top 3 inches of the cover image will be obscured by the journal logo, and the bottom 1 inch will be obscured by the ACS Publications bar. Authors should also include a 5-10 word caption that will appear on the front cover, and a short (less than 50 words) description of the cover that will be published alongside the image. Examples of previous ACS ES&T Engineering covers can be seen at .

If the image has been previously published, authors should include a signed permission form from the publisher to reprint the image in all media formats (print and electronic).  See Copyright and Permissions on the ACS Paragon Plus website for more information.  If your art is selected for front cover, ACS will send you information about how to request one complimentary 18” by 24” printed poster featuring your work.

ACS ES&T Engineering also offers authors a great way to promote their work through Supplementary Covers .  Submit your cover idea, artwork, and caption when submitting your manuscript revision in ACS Paragon Plus.  If your article is accepted for publication, your suggestion may be selected for use on one of the journal’s supplementary covers.


The corresponding author must reveal any potential and/or relevant competing financial or other interest (of all authors) that might be affected by publication of the results contained in the manuscript. Potential conflicts of interest and sources of funding of the research reported must be clearly stated at the time of manuscript submission and included in the Acknowledgments. If no potential for a conflict of interest is declared, the following statement will be published in the article: “The authors declare no competing financial interest.” See the ACS Ethical Guidelines for additional details.

This information is provided to the reviewers during the peer-review process (for Review Only) and is available to readers of the published work (for Publication). Supporting Information must be submitted at the same time as the manuscript. See the list of Acceptable Software by File Designation and confirm that your Supporting Information is viewable .

If the manuscript is accompanied by any supporting information files for publication, these files will be made available free of charge to readers. A brief, nonsentence description of the actual contents of each file, including the file type extension, is required. This description should be labeled Supporting Information and should appear before the Acknowledgement and Reference sections. Examples of sufficient and insufficient descriptions are as follows:

Examples of sufficient descriptions: “Supporting Information: 1 H NMR spectra for all compounds (PDF)” or “Additional experimental details, materials, and methods, including photographs of experimental setup (DOC)”.

Examples of insufficient descriptions: “Supporting Information: Figures S1-S3” or “Additional figures as mentioned in the text”.

When including supporting information for review only, include copies of references that are unpublished or in-press. These files are available only to editors and reviewers.

All ACS journals strongly encourage authors to make the research data underlying their articles publicly available at the time of publication.

Research data is defined as materials and information used in the experiments that enable the validation of the conclusions drawn in the article, including primary data produced by the authors for the study being reported, secondary data reused or analyzed by the authors for the study, and any other materials necessary to reproduce or replicate the results.

The ACS Research Data Policy provides additional information on Data Availability Statements, Data Citation, and Data Repositories.


Use abbreviations and acronyms sparingly, and all usage should be defined at the first occurrence in the text. Whenever possible, use systematic nomenclature as recommended by IUPAC and IUBMB for chemical compounds and biomolecules. Names of organisms should comply with genetic conventions, with genus and species names written in italics and spelled out in full on first appearance.

Database Deposition.  

Advancing scientific discoveries can be enhanced when data and materials are made available and readily exchanged. ACS ES&T Engineering requires for all published articles that authors make materials, data, and protocols available to readers through deposition in a public database. In addition, ACS Publications’ figshare houses all Supporting Information within the HTML presentation of the paper and at . Authors may want to further investigate Dryad or institutional repositories for depositing data. Authors also agree to make available to interested academic researchers for their own use any materials reported in the manuscript that are not otherwise obtainable. Any restrictions to the availability of materials or information must be stated at the time of submission. The ACS Math Style Sheet and NMR Guidelines are available on the ACS Publishing Center.

Use of Human Subjects or Animals in Research.

The American Chemical Society Publications rules and ethical guidelines provide mandatory standards of practice in experimental studies performed using biological samples obtained from animals or human subjects. Studies submitted for publication approval must present evidence that the described experimental activities have undergone local institutional review assessing safety and humane usage of study subject animals. In the case of human subjects authors must also provide a statement that study samples were obtained through the informed consent of the donors, or in lieu of that evidence, by the authority of the institutional board that licensed the use of such material. The institution’s name and approved IRB number must be listed in the paper. Papers that include any aspect of Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) or citizen science must include information on practices employed protects vulnerable populations.  

Contributor Roles Taxonomy (CRediT)

CRediT is a high-level taxonomy used to identify and acknowledge the roles played by contributors to scientific scholarly output. During original submission and/or revision, there are 14 standard roles from which the submitting author can select to describe the specific contributions of each author. At this time, CRediT is optional for authors. Please note that author CRediT information will not transfer if the manuscript is transferred to a pilot or non-pilot journal. Click here to learn more about the ACS CRediT pilot .

A well-written paper helps share your results most clearly. The English in all submissions must meet the journal’s minimum standards for publication. Manuscripts containing numerous errors in grammar and word choice can frustrate reviewers and make the review process challenging. ACS Publications’ English Editing Service is designed to help scientists communicate their research effectively. Although using such a service does not guarantee acceptance of a manuscript, they may help in clarifying the significance of your research as well as editing your manuscript for grammar, spelling and other language errors to your ideas are presented at their best.

The quality of illustrations in ACS journals and partner journals depends on the quality of the original files provided by the authors. Figures are not modified or enhanced by journal production staff. All graphics must be prepared and submitted in digital format.

Graphics should be inserted into the main body whenever possible. Please see Appendix 2 for additional information.

Any graphic (figure chart, scheme, or equation) that has appeared in an earlier publication should include a credit line citing the original source. Authors are responsible for obtaining written permission to re-use this material.

The impact of your research is not limited to what you can express with words. Tables and figures such as graphs, photographs, illustrations, diagrams, and other visuals can play a significant role in effectively communicating your findings. Our Artwork Editing and Graphical Abstract services generate publication-ready figures and Table of Contents (TOC) graphics that conform to your chosen journal’s specifications. For figures, this includes changes to file type, resolution, color space, font, scale, line weights, and layout (to improve readability and professional appearance). For TOC graphics, our illustrators can work with a rough sketch or concept or help extract the key findings of your manuscript directly for use as a visual summary of your paper.

Preparing for Submission

Manuscripts, graphics, supporting information, and required forms, as well as manuscript revisions, must all be submitted in digital format through ACS Paragon Plus , which requires an ACS ID to log in. Registering for an ACS ID is fast, free, and does not require an ACS membership. Please refer to Appendix 1 for additional information on preparing your submission

ACS ES&T Engineering considers only original work for publication that has not been previously published and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. Related work under consideration for publication in any medium must be cited in the manuscript and the Editor-in-Chief informed at the time of submission. In addition, an author must inform the Editor-in-Chief of prior dissemination of the content in print or electronic formats in the cover letter. Posting of pre-prints to a pre-print server such as ChemRxiv , bioR X iv, arXiv, or applicable repository for their discipline before the manuscript is accepted for publication is considered acceptable but requires citing of the pre-print. Authors may revise the preprint version of their manuscript up until a final acceptance decision has been issued. Please note the use of a pre-print server in the cover letter and provide a link to the preprint, and as appropriate, state how the manuscript has been adjusted/updated between deposition and submission.  All other prior/redundant publication is forbidden. Failure to alert ACS ES&T Engineering in your cover letter to any prior publication of your submission may be viewed as an ethical violation. Upon publication in ACS ES&T Engineering , authors are advised to add a link from the pre-print to the published paper via the Digital Object Identified (DOI) that is assigned to the published article. Some preprint servers, including ChemRxiv and bioR X iv, include this link for authors automatically after publication.

Theses/Dissertations .

Authors submitting material that has been used in their thesis/dissertation must contact the Editor-in-Chief for approval. Authors will be asked to confirm that they alone hold the copyright to the work and to read and comply with the ACS dissertation policy , and the conditions and procedures laid out in the ACS Journal Publishing Agreement (JPA). Authors will also need to make arrangements with their degree-granting institution (and any repositories to which their thesis/dissertation has been or will be posted) to either delay posting of the thesis/dissertation or remove the material from the Internet until the final paper is published by ACS ES&T Engineering (i.e. the work is considered under embargo). Finally, they will need to properly cite the ACS ES&T Engineering article in any versions of the thesis/dissertation made publically available after the embargo period.

Authors wishing to include published ACS ES&T Engineering material in their thesis/dissertation should follow the guidelines of the ACS dissertation policy. They must contact the Editor-in-Chief for permission, and properly cite and link to the published ACS ES&T Engineering article. Permission requests for all ACS Journal materials are handled through the RightsLink service. Please see the RightsLink instructions for complete details: .

Proceedings of conferences and symposia .

Authors cannot publish presentations in proceedings (paper or electronic) that are copyrighted (except by ACS) and then submit them to ACS ES&T Engineering due to copyright concerns. If the proceedings are not copyrighted, publishing a short abstract without figures or tables is permissible. It is the responsibility of authors to notify ACS ES&T Engineering of any abstracts that have been published in any form.

ACS ES&T Engineering will consider for publication a paper or presentation that has been posted on a website available to the general public, provided that the site is the personal site of the author and is not connected to a commercial site. Authors must notify the journal at the time of submission if the material has been available on the Internet or equivalent electronic media and must remove the material from the site at the time of submission. When the paper is published, authors may provide an electronic link from that site to the ACS ES&T Engineering homepage. If the website is a commercial site not owned by ACS, the authors are advised that consideration of the paper may be endangered.

Authors must confirm that they alone hold the copyright to the report. If a government or funding organization requires posting of a related report, please contact the Editor-in-Chief and provide specific details.

Submitting Revised Manuscripts and Response to Reviewers

If you are submitting a revised manuscript or an authorized resubmission of a manuscript that was already peer reviewed, you must submit point-by-point responses to each of the comments of the reviewers. We recommend that you copy the reviewer’s comment into the text immediately prior to your response. You should also upload, as ‘Information for Review Only’, a version of the manuscript with changes highlighted to allow the editor to easily discern the revisions that have been made.

Resubmission of Previously Declined Manuscripts to ACS ES&T Engineering

If your manuscript is declined by ACS ES&T Engineering , read the decision letter carefully. Manuscripts are often declined because the editor determines that the subject matter is not appropriate for ACS ES&T Engineering or that the novelty or significance of the manuscript is insufficient.  If the author believes an error has been made, ACS ES&T Engineering has a process for appealing decisions on manuscripts, which is described in the Appeal Process section of this Guide. If you wish to submit a revised version of a declined manuscript to ACS ES&T Engineering , you must first contact the associate editor who handled your original submission to request permission to resubmit.

If you receive permission to resubmit, indicate in your cover letter that it is an authorized revision of a previously submitted manuscript, provide the original manuscript number, and state how the manuscript has changed. If the manuscript was reviewed, submit a detailed, point-by-point list of your responses to each of the comments of the reviewers or provide convincing reasons for declining to do so. The manuscript should be submitted online (see the Manuscript Submission section of this Guide, below), where it will receive a new manuscript number. During the submission process, mark “Yes” when asked if the manuscript has been previously submitted “in whole or in part.” Manuscripts that editors judge to be resubmissions, in whole or in part, of previously submitted manuscripts that do not comply with these rules will not be considered for publication. Moreover, failure to alert ACS ES&T Engineering   to a resubmission, even in part, is an ethical violation.

Please suggest 4 reviewers. Authors are encouraged to avoid suggesting reviewers from the authors’ institutions. Do not suggest reviewers who may have a real or perceived conflict of interest . Whenever possible, suggest academic email addresses rather than personal email addresses.

If your submission is declined for publication by this journal, the editors might deem your work to be better suited for another ACS Publications journal or partner journal and suggest that the authors consider transferring the submission. Manuscript Transfer simplifies and shortens the process of submitting to another ACS journal or partner journal, as all the coauthors, suggested reviewers, manuscript files, and responses to submission questions are copied by ACS Paragon Plus to the new draft submission. Authors are free to accept or decline the transfer offer. Once a transfer is accepted, authors will then complete the submission to the new journal in ACS Paragon Plus.

During the transfer submission process, authors will have the opportunity to revise the manuscript and address comments received from editors or reviewers. Requirements of the new journal may be different, so authors should also check the Author Guidelines for the new journal and make any needed revisions in order to conform to those requirements. Please keep in mind that the reviews, reviewer identities, and decision letter will all be transferred to the new journal. Authors are encouraged to identify changes made to the manuscript in a cover letter for the new journal.

Note that each journal is editorially independent. Transferring a manuscript is not a guarantee that the manuscript will be accepted, as the final publication decision will belong to the editor of the next journal.


Correction of the galley proofs is the responsibility of the Corresponding Author. The Corresponding Author of an accepted manuscript will receive e-mail notification and complete instructions when page proofs are available for review via ACS Direct Correct  (or via production of a list of corrections). Extensive or important changes on page proofs, including changes to the title or list of authors, are subject to review by the editor.

It is the responsibility of the Corresponding Author to ensure that all authors listed on the manuscript agree with the changes made on the proofs. Galley proofs should be returned within 48 hours in order to ensure timely publication of the manuscript.

Accepted manuscripts will be published on the ACS Publications Web site as an ASAP (As Soon As Publishable, see below) publication as soon as page proofs are corrected and all author concerns are resolved. The first date on which the document is published on the web as an ASAP is considered the publication date.

Publication of manuscripts on the web as an ASAP may occur weeks in advance of the cover date of the issue of publication. Authors should take this into account when planning their patent and intellectual property activities related to a document and should ensure that all patent information is available at the time of first publication, whether ASAP or issue publication. ASAP manuscripts do not receive information on the designated journal issue number for final publication or page number information. This is only available once the manuscript is assigned to a final issue.

All articles published ahead of print receive a unique Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, which is used to cite the manuscript before and after the paper appears in an issue. Additionally, any supplemental information submitted along with the manuscript will automatically be assigned a DOI and hosted on Figshare to promote open data discoverability and use of your research outputs.

As Soon As Publishable (ASAP) manuscripts will be published on the “ASAP Articles” page on the web as soon as page proofs are corrected and all author concerns are resolved. ASAP publication usually occurs within a few working days of receipt of page proof corrections.  Following publication as an ASAP manuscript, manuscripts are then finally published in an issue and given page numbers.  Articles appear on the web approximately 10 days before the printed version is available for distribution. 

The American Chemical Society follows guidance from the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) when considering any ethical concerns regarding a published article, Retractions, and Expressions of Concern.

Additions and Corrections

Additions and Corrections may be requested by the author(s) or initiated by the Editor to address important issues or correct errors and omissions of consequence that arise after publication of an article. All Additions and Corrections are subject to approval by the Editor, and should bring new and directly relevant information and corrections that fix scientific facts. Minor corrections and additions will not be published. Readers who detect errors of consequence in the work of others should contact the corresponding author of that work.

Additions and Corrections must be submitted as new manuscripts via ACS Paragon Plus by the Corresponding Author for publication in the “Addition/Correction” section of the Journal. The corresponding author should obtain approval from all coauthors prior to submitting or provide evidence that such approval has been solicited. The manuscript should include the original article title and author list, citation including DOI, and details of the correction.


Articles may be retracted for scientific or ethical reasons and may be requested by the article author(s) or by the journal Editor(s), but are ultimately published at the discretion of the Editor. Articles that contain seriously flawed or erroneous data such that their findings and conclusions cannot be relied upon may be retracted in order to correct the scientific record. When an article is retracted, a notice of Retraction will be published containing information about the reason for the Retraction. The originally published article will remain online except in extraordinary circumstances (e.g. where deemed legally necessary, or if the availability of the published content poses public health risks).

If you believe you may need to retract your published ACS ES&T Engineering article, please email the Editor-in-Chief ( [email protected] ), copying the Managing Editor ( [email protected] ), with an explanation of the reason(s) for retraction.

Expressions of Concern

Expressions of Concern may be issued at the discretion of the Editor if:

Upon completion of any related investigation, and when a final determination is made about the outcome of the article, the Expression of Concern may be replaced with a Retraction notice or Correction.

At ACS Publications, we know it is important for you to be able to share your published work with colleagues in the global community of scientists. As sharing on sites known as scholarly collaboration networks (SCNs) is becoming increasingly prevalent in today’s scholarly research ecosystem, we would like to remind you of the many ways you can share your published work, including:

a) Depositing a copy of your accepted peer-reviewed manuscript to online repositories for non-commercial purposes

b) Promoting your research and related data on social media, at conferences, and through scholarly communication networks, or use in teaching or in-house materials

c) Sharing your article’s supporting information via the ACS Publications website.  ACS has partnered with Figshare so it’s easy for ACS authors to download, share, cite or embed your data. The "How Can I Share It" website offers an overview of available sharing platforms and outlines how and where you can share you publications responsibly.  The following resources can also help to increase the impact of your research: Altmetrics , ACS Certified Deposit

d) Using ACS Publications' easy way to share your newly published research with ACS Articles on Request (see E-Prints below)

When your article is published in an ACS journal or partner journal, corresponding authors are provided with a link that offers up to 50 free digital prints of the final published work. This link is valid for the first 12 months following online publication, and can be shared via email or an author’s website. After one year, the access restrictions to your article will be lifted, and you can share the Articles on Request URL on social media and other channels. To access all your Articles on Request links, log in to your ACS Publishing Center account and visit the “My Published Manuscripts” page.

Article , journal , and commercial reprints are available to order.


We’ve developed ACS’ publishing and editorial policies in consultation with the research communities that we serve, including authors and librarians. Browse our policies below to learn more.

Ethical Guidelines

ACS editors have provided Ethical Guidelines for persons engaged in the publication of chemical research—specifically, for editors, authors, and reviewers. Each journal also has a specific policy on prior publication .

OFAC Compliance

As a U.S.-based non-profit organization, the American Chemical Society (ACS) is required to comply with U.S. sanctions laws and regulations administered by the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC). While these laws and regulations permit U.S.-based publishers like ACS to engage in publishing-related activities with authors located in sanctioned regions in many cases, ACS may be prohibited under U.S. law from engaging in publishing-related activities in some cases, including, but not limited to, instances where an author or the institution with which an author is affiliated is located in a particular sanctioned region or has been designated by OFAC as a Specially Designated National (SDN) pursuant to certain U.S. sanctions programs. ACS reserves the right to refrain from engaging in any publishing-related activities that ACS determines in its sole discretion may be in violation of U.S. law.

Safety Considerations

Authors must emphasize any unexpected, new, and/or significant hazards or risks associated with the reported work. This information should be in the Experimental Section of a full article and included in the main text of a letter. Statement examples can be found in the Safety Statement Style Sheet  and additional information on communicating safety information from the  ACS Guide to Scholarly Communication is freely available here .

Conflict of Interest Disclosure

A statement describing any financial conflicts of interest or lack thereof is published in each ACS journal and partner journal article.

During the submission process, the Corresponding Author must provide a statement on behalf of all authors of the manuscript, describing all potential sources of bias, including affiliations, funding sources, and financial or management relationships, that may constitute conflicts of interest. If the manuscript is accepted, the statement will be published in the final article.

If the manuscript is accepted and no conflict of interest has been declared, the following statement will be published in the final article: “The authors declare no competing financial interest.”

In publishing only original research, ACS is committed to deterring plagiarism, including self-plagiarism. ACS Publications uses CrossCheck's iThenticate software to screen submitted manuscripts for similarity to published material. Note that your manuscript may be screened during the submission process.

Further information about plagiarism can be found in Part B of the Ethical Guidelines to Publication of Chemical Research . See also the press release regarding ACS' participation in the CrossCheck initiative.

Authorship, Author List, and Coauthor Notification

Authors are required to obtain the consent of all their coauthors prior to submitting a manuscript. The submitting author accepts the responsibility of notifying all coauthors that the manuscript is being submitted.

During manuscript submission, the submitting author must provide contact information (full name, email address, institutional affiliation, and mailing address) for all of the coauthors. Because all of the author names are automatically imported into the electronic Journal Publishing Agreement , the names must be entered into ACS Paragon Plus. (Note that coauthors are not required to register in ACS Paragon Plus.) Author affiliation should reflect where the work was completed, even if the author has since left that institution. Authors may include a note with a current address if their institution has changed since the work was completed.

To expedite the processing of your manuscript, please format your author and affiliation information according the guidelines in this link: .

Criteria for authorship can be found in Part B of the Ethical Guidelines to Publication of Chemical Research . Artificial intelligence (AI) tools do not qualify for authorship. The use of AI tools for text or image generation should be disclosed in the manuscript within the Acknowledgment section with a description of when and how the tools were used. For more substantial use cases or descriptions of AI tool use, authors should provide full details within the Methods or other appropriate section of the manuscript.

If any change in authorship is necessary after a manuscript has been submitted, confirmation is required that all of the authors (including those being added or removed) have been notified and have agreed to the change. To provide this confirmation, authors are asked to complete and sign an authorship change form and provide the completed form to the appropriate editorial office.

Patent Activities and Intellectual Property

Authors are responsible for ensuring that all patent activities and intellectual property issues are satisfactorily resolved prior to first publication (ASAP or in issue). Acceptance and publication will not be delayed for pending or unresolved issues of this nature.

Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID)

Authors submitting manuscript revisions are required to provide their own personal, validated ORCID iD before completing the submission, if an ORCID iD is not already associated with their ACS Paragon Plus user profiles. This ID may be provided during original manuscript submission or when submitting the manuscript revision. All authors are strongly encouraged to register for an ORCID iD, a unique researcher identifier. The ORCID iD will be displayed in the published article for any author on a manuscript who has a validated ORCID iD associated with ACS when the manuscript is accepted.

ORCID iDs should not be typed into the manuscript. ACS publishes only those ORCID iDs that have been properly verified and linked before the manuscript is accepted . After your ORCID iD is linked, it will be displayed automatically in all subsequently accepted manuscripts for any/all ACS journals. We do not publish ORCID iDs provided during proof review or via other communications after a manuscript is accepted for publication.

With an ORCID iD, you can create a profile of your research activities to distinguish yourself from other researchers with similar names, and make it easier for your colleagues to find your publications. If you do not yet have an ORCID iD, or you wish to associate your existing ORCID iD with your ACS Paragon Plus account, you may do so by clicking on “Edit Your Profile” from your ACS Paragon Plus account homepage and following the ORCID-related links. Learn more at .

Copyright and Permissions

To obtain forms and guidelines for copyright transfer, obtaining permissions from copyright owners, and to explore a Copyright Learning Module for chemists, click here .

Funder Reporting Requirement

Authors are required to report funding sources and grant/award numbers. Enter ALL sources of funding for ALL authors in BOTH the Funder Registry Tool in ACS Paragon Plus and in your manuscript to meet this requirement.

Open Access Compliance

ACS offers options by which authors can fulfill the requirements for open access and deposition into repositories for funded research. Visit our ACS Open Science site to see how to fulfill requirements for specific funders  and to find out if you are eligible to publish under a Read + Publish agreement between ACS and your institution. You can also find out more about Open Access Compliance and ACS Open Science initiatives .

Appendix 2: Preparing Graphics

Digital graphics pasted into manuscripts should have the following minimum resolutions:

Graphics must fit a one- or two-column format. Single-column graphics can be sized up to 240 points wide (3.33 in.) and double-column graphics must be sized between 300 and 504 points (4.167 in. and 7 in.). The maximum depth for all graphics is 660 points (9.167 in.) including the caption (allow 12 pts. For each line of caption text). Lettering should be no smaller than 4.5 points in the final published format. The text should be legible when the graphic is viewed full-size. Helvetica or Arial fonts work well for lettering. Lines should be no thinner than 0.5 point.

Color may be used to enhance the clarity of complex structures, figures, spectra, and schemes, etc., and color reproduction of graphics is provided at no additional cost to the author. Graphics intended to appear in black and white or grayscale should not be submitted in color.

Type of Graphics

Table of contents (toc)/abstract graphic.

Consult the Guidelines for Table of Contents/Abstract Graphics for specifications.

Our team of subject-matter experts and graphical designers can also help generate a compelling TOC graphic to convey your key findings. Learn more about our Graphical Abstract service .

A caption giving the figure number and a brief description must be included below each figure. The caption should be understandable without reference to the text. It is preferable to place any key to symbols used in the artwork itself, not in the caption. Ensure that any symbols and abbreviations used in the text agree with those in the artwork.

Charts (groups of structures that do not show reactions) may have a brief caption describing their contents.

Each table must have a brief (one phrase or sentence) title that describes the contents. The title should be understandable without reference to the text. Details should be put in footnotes, not in the title. Tables should be used when the data cannot be presented clearly in the narrative, when many numbers must be presented, or when more meaningful inter-relationships can be conveyed by the tabular format. Tables should supplement, not duplicate, information presented in the text and figures. Tables should be simple and concise.

Each scheme (sequences of reactions) may have a brief caption describing its contents.

Chemical structures should be produced with the use of a drawing program such as ChemDraw.

ACS ES&T Engineering features a different image on the front cover of each issue.  The cover art image is usually related to work that is published in that particular issue of the journal.  Authors are encouraged to submit images to be considered for use on future front covers at the time of submitting their revised manuscripts.

Images to be considered for the cover should be eye-catching, imaginative and original.  Unpublished images are encouraged.  Covers should be submitted as an electronic file in eps, tif, jpg, or png format (not pdf or ppt), and be at least 8.19 inches wide and 10 inches high, with a minimum resolution of 300 dpi (color) (2400 x 3300 pixels). The file should be sent as a layered file to enable art enhancement of individual elements. The top 3 inches of the cover image will be obscured by the journal logo.  Authors should also include a 5-10 word caption that will appear on the front cover, and a short (less than 50 words) description of the cover that will be published alongside the image.

ACS ES&T Engineering  also offers authors to promote their work through Supplementary Covers . Submit your cover idea, artwork, and caption when submitting your manuscript revision in ACS Paragon Plus. If your article is accepted for publication, your suggestion may be selected for use on one of the journal’s supplementary covers. All art submitted for consideration for a supplementary cover will also be considered for a front cover.

Appendix 3: Approved Graphics Programs

The Web editions of ACS journals allow readers to view multimedia attachments such as animations and movies that complement understanding of the research being reported.

WEOs should be uploaded in ACS Paragon Plus with ‘Web Enhanced Object’ selected as the file designation. Consult the list of compatible WEO formats .

Approved Graphics Programs and Websites with Compliant Copyright Licenses for Commercial Use

To comply with copyright rules, the following websites and graphics programs have copyright license wording that is acceptable to allow commercial use of their images and created graphics.  It remains the responsibility of the author to obtain or purchase the correct copyright license agreement from the recommended vendors listed below.

cover letter desalination journal

1155 Sixteenth Street N.W. Washington, DC 20036


Copyright © 2017 American Chemical Society

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Journal of Membrane Science & Technology

ISSN: 2155-9589

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Journal of Membrane Science & Technology received 825 citations as per Google Scholar report

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Open Access Journals

Instructions for Authors

Journal of Membrane Science & Technology provide the rapid monthly publication of articles in all areas related to: 

Journal of Membrane Science & Technology welcomes the submission of manuscripts that meet the general criteria of significance and scientific excellence. Papers will be published approximately one month after acceptance.

As a member of Publisher International linking Association, PILA, Journal of Membrane Science & Technology (of Walsh Medical Media) follows the Creative Commons Attribution License and Scholars Open Access publishing policies.

Journal of Membrane Science & Technology is the Council Contributor Member of Council of Science Editors (CSE) and following the CSE slogan Education, Ethics, and Evidence for Editors.

Submit manuscript at   or send as an e-mail attachment to the Editorial Office at [email protected]

A manuscript number will be e-mailed to the corresponding author within 72 hours.

Walsh Medical Media Policy Regarding the NIH Mandate

Walsh Medical Media will support authors by posting the published version of articles by NIH grant-holders to PubMed Central immediately after publication.

Editorial Policies and Process

Journal of Membrane Science & Technology follows a progressive Editorial Policy that encourages innovation and analysis to submit the initial research, reviews and editorial observations as articles, well supported by tables and graphic illustration.

Note: Authors are sole responsible for any scientific misconduct including plagiarism in their research articles; publisher is not responsible for any scientific misconduct happened in any published research article. As a publisher we will follow strictly scientific guidelines and EIC’s advice to retract or erratum of any article at any time if scientific misconduct or errors happened in any articles.

Article Processing Charges (APC):

Journal of Membrane Science & Technology is organized by Walsh Medical Media, a self supporting organization and does not receive funding from any institution/government. Hence, the operation of the Journal is solely financed by the handling fees received from authors and some academic/corporate sponsors. The handling fees are required to meet maintenance of the journal. Being an Open Access Journal, Journal of Membrane Science & Technology does not receive payment for subscription, as the articles are freely accessible over the internet. Authors of articles are required to pay a fair handling fee for processing their articles. However, there are no submission charges. Authors are required to make payment only after their manuscript has been accepted for publication.

Withdrawal Policy: From time to time, an author may wish to withdraw a manuscript after submitting it. Changing one’s mind is an author’s prerogative. And an author is free to withdraw an article at no charge – as long as it is withdrawn within 10 days of its initial submission. Author needs to pay complete processing fee if he wants to withdraw after 10 days.

Average Article prorcessing time (APT) is 55 days

The basic article processing fee or manuscript handling cost is as per the price mentioned above on the other hand it may vary based on the extensive editing, colored effects, complex equations, extra elongation of no. of pages of the article, etc.

Fast Editorial Execution and Review Process (FEE-Review Process):

Journal of Membrane Science & Technology is participating in the Fast Editorial Execution and Review Process (FEE-Review Process) with an additional prepayment of $99 apart from the regular article processing fee. Fast Editorial Execution and Review Process is a special service for the article that enables it to get a faster response in the pre-review stage from the handling editor as well as a review from the reviewer. An author can get a faster response of pre-review maximum in 3 days since submission, and a review process by the reviewer maximum in 5 days, followed by revision/publication in 2 days. If the article gets notified for revision by the handling editor, then it will take another 5 days for external review by the previous reviewer or alternative reviewer.

Acceptance of manuscripts is driven entirely by handling editorial team considerations and independent peer-review, ensuring the highest standards are maintained no matter the route to regular peer-reviewed publication or a fast editorial review process. The handling editor and the article contributor are responsible for adhering to scientific standards. The article FEE-Review process of $99 will not be refunded even if the article is rejected or withdrawn for publication.

The corresponding author or institution/organization is responsible for making the manuscript FEE-Review Process payment. The additional FEE-Review Process payment covers the fast review processing and quick editorial decisions, and regular article publication covers the preparation in various formats for online publication, securing full-text inclusion in a number of permanent archives like HTML, XML, and PDF, and feeding to different indexing agencies.  

Submission of an Article

In order to reduce delays, authors should assure that the level, length and format of a manuscript submission conform to Walsh Medical Media’s requirements at the submission and each revision stage. Submitted articles should have a summary/abstract, separate from the main text, of up to 300 words. This summary does not include references, numbers, abbreviations or measurements unless essential. The summary should provide a basic-level introduction to the field; a brief account of the background and principle of the work; a statement of the main conclusions; and 2-3 sentences that place the main findings into a general context. The text may contain a few short subheadings of no more than 40 characters each.

Translation Services

With an objective to make scientific and health care information globally available, Walsh Medical Media has launched Translation Services. As per the interest of the scientific community from non-English speaking territories, we have introduced this new feature to facilitate authors to reach a global audience in many major world languages. Walsh Medical Media Translation Services help the scientific community to have easy access to all scientific articles not only in English but also in French, Spanish, German, Chinese and Japanese.

The scientific translations service grants a global presence to the authors and their research. Our language experts in Spanish, French, German, Chinese and Japanese translate articles from English to the desired world languages and vice-versa as per the author’s requirement.

As an open access publisher Walsh Medical Media does not get any financial contributions from other organizations. Authors who wish to use our translation services and who are interested in publishing their research in the above-mentioned languages are requested to pay the following charges in addition to the article processing charges.

Walsh Medical Media to accomplish its vision to make scientific information & health care open access, has made a new initiation to enrich the scientific knowledge all around the world. As per the interest of the scientific community from Non-English speaking territories, we have introduced a new feature in the name of language translation. Language translation helps the scientific community to go through the articles in Chinese, Japanese & other world languages. As we are into open access publishing & we don't receive any funds from any organization, authors who are interested to publish their paper in other languages which includes Chinese, Japanese etc., are requested to pay $ 100 along with the article processing charges.

Accepted papers will be published in both English as well as author recommended language(s).

Formats for Walsh Medical Media Contributions: Walsh Medical Media accepts the following: original articles, reviews, abstracts, addendums, announcements, article-commentaries, book reviews, rapid communications, letters to the editor, annual meeting abstracts, conference proceedings, calendars, case-reports, corrections, discussions, meeting-reports, news, obituaries, orations, product reviews, hypotheses and analyses.

Cover Letter:

All submissions should be accompanied by a 500 words or less cover letter briefly stating the significance of the research, agreement of authors for publication, number of figures and tables, supporting manuscripts, and supplementary information.

Also, include current telephone and fax numbers, as well as postal and E-mail address of corresponding author to maintain communication.

Article Preparation Guidelines

Manuscript title: The title should be limited to 25 words or less and should not contain abbreviations. The title should be a brief phrase describing the contents of the paper.

Author Information: Complete names and affiliation of all authors, including contact details of corresponding author (Telephone, Fax and E-mail address).

Abstract: The abstract should be informative and completely self-explanatory, briefly present the topic, state the scope of the experiments, indicate significant data, and point out major findings and conclusions. The abstract should summarize the manuscript content in 300 words or less. Standard nomenclature should be used and abbreviations should be avoided. The preferable format should accommodate a description of the study background, methods, results and conclusion. Following the abstract, a list of keywords (3-10) and abbreviations should be included.

Introduction: The introduction should set the tone of the paper by providing a clear statement of the study, the relevant literature on the study subject and the proposed approach or solution. The introduction should be general enough to attract a reader’s attention from a broad range of scientific disciplines.

Materials and Methods: This section should provide a complete overview of the design of the study. Detailed descriptions of materials or participants, comparisons, interventions and types of analysis should be mentioned. However, only new procedures should be described in detail; previously published procedures should be cited and important modifications of published procedures should be mentioned briefly. Capitalize trade names and include the manufacturer's name and address.

Results: The results section should provide complete details of the experiment that are required to support the conclusion of the study. The results should be written in the past tense when describing findings in the authors'experiments. Previously published findings should be written in the present tense. Results and discussion may be combined or in a separate section. Speculation and detailed interpretation of data should not be included in the results but should be put into the discussion section.

Acknowledgement: This section includes acknowledgment of people, grant details, funds, etc.

Note: If an author fails to submit his/her work as per the above instructions, they are pleased to maintain clear titles namely headings, subheading.


Only published or accepted manuscripts should be included in the reference list. Meetings abstracts, conference talks, or papers that have been submitted but not yet accepted should not be cited. All personal communications should be supported by a letter from the relevant authors.

Walsh Medical Media uses the numbered citation (citation-sequence) method. References are listed and numbered in the order that they appear in the text. In the text, citations should be indicated by the reference number in brackets. Multiple citations within a single set of brackets should be separated by commas. When there are three or more sequential citations, they should be given as a range. Example: "... now enable biologists to simultaneously monitor the expression of thousands of genes in a single experiment [1,5-7,28]". Make sure the parts of the manuscript are in the correct order for the relevant journal before ordering the citations. Figure captions and tables should be at the end of the manuscript.

Authors are requested to provide at least one online link for each reference as following (preferably PubMed).

Because all references will be linked electronically as much as possible to the papers they cite, proper formatting of the references is crucial. Please use the following style for the reference list:

Published Papers :

Note: Please list the first five authors and then add "et al." if there are additional authors.

Electronic Journal Articles Entrez Programming Utilities


These should be used at a minimum and designed as simple as possible. We strongly encourage authors to submit tables as .doc format. Tables are to be typed double-spaced throughout, including headings and footnotes. Each table should be on a separate page, numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals and supplied with a heading and a legend. Tables should be self-explanatory without reference to the text. Preferably, the details of the methods used in the experiments should be described in the legend instead of in the text. The same data should not be presented in both table and graph form or repeated in the text. Cells can be copied from an Excel spreadsheet and pasted into a word document, but Excel files should not be embedded as objects.

Note: If the submission is in PDF format, the author is requested to retain the same in .doc format in order to aid in completion of process successfully.

The preferred file formats for photographic images are .doc, TIFF and JPEG. If you have created images with separate components on different layers, please send us the Photoshop files.

All images must be at or above intended display size, with the following image resolutions: Line Art 800 dpi, Combination (Line Art + Halftone) 600 dpi, Halftone 300 dpi. See the Image quality specifications chart for details.

Image files also must be cropped as close to the actual image as possible.

Use Arabic numerals to designate figures and upper case letters for their parts (Figure 1). Begin each legend with a title and include sufficient description so that the figure is understandable without reading the text of the manuscript. Information given in legends should not be repeated in the text.

Figure legends: These should be typed in numerical order on a separate sheet

Tables and Equations as Graphics:

If equations cannot be encoded in MathML, submit them in TIFF or EPS format as discrete files (i.e., a file containing only the data for one equation). Only when tables cannot be encoded as XML/SGML can they be submitted as graphics. If this method is used, it is critical that the font size in all equations and tables is consistent and legible throughout all submissions.

Supplementary Information:  

Discrete items of the Supplementary Information (for example, figures, tables) referred to at an appropriate point in the main text of the paper.

Summary diagram/figure included as part of the Supplementary Information (optional).

All Supplementary Information is supplied as a single PDF file, where possible. File size within the permitted limits for Supplementary Information. Images should be a maximum size of 640 x 480 pixels (9 x 6.8 inches at 72 pixels per inch).

Proofs and Reprints:

Electronic proofs will be sent as an e-mail attachment to the corresponding author as a PDF file. Page proofs are considered to be the final version of the manuscript. With the exception of typographical or minor clerical errors, no changes will be made in the manuscript at the proof stage. Authors will have free electronic access to the full text (HTML, PDF and XML) of the article. Authors can freely download the PDF file from which they can print unlimited copies of their articles.

Submission of a manuscript implies that the work described has not been published before (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, or thesis) and that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.

All works published by Walsh Medical Media are under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. This permits anyone to copy, distribute, transmit and adapt the work provided the original work and source is appropriately cited.

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