Recommendations Of Nokia
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Our recommendation for Zenith would be to adopt a High-Involvement Managerial strategy. Moving from the classical managerial strategy to a high involvement strategy will motivate employees by a need for interesting work, challenge, autonomy, personal growth, and professional development, and that employees can exercise self-control if the organization provides these conditions while treating employees fairly and equitably. The strategy is better aligned for Zenith because it will motivate employees to be more cooperative in all departments, and enables its management to confront increasing global competition whilst providing opportunities to workers for greater rewards and security. More specifically it will focus on intrinsic satisfaction for employees. Overall, workers will be trained towards more cooperative work, functional flexibility, idea generation, and information sharing, predominantly on the technology and market of the business to speed up work assignments and still deliver a more variety than their competitors when it comes to shaping the system to their clients specific needs. In order to achieve this transition a strong transformational leadership is required.
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Essay On Nokia Company
However that in 2007 the market of Nokia Company started to decrease and the reasons for that is the new competitions like IPhone from Apple that introduced smartphones, along with Android by Google, and Samsung. Even though Nokia Company results for 2012 were pre much good by having 101982 workers across 120 countries along with sales in more than 150 countries, and the reports for revenue were around 30€ billion. Nokia was announced to be the second largest world for mobiles phone makers in terms of unit sales after Samsung, with having world wide market share 18.0%. However that Nokia Company for current days has 3.2% in smartphones and they lost 40% of their revenue in mobile phone in Q2 for 2013. Nokia was listed in fortune global 500 to be world’s 274 largest companies for 2013 from revenue sides. So Nokia Company has good products, services, and reputations. Knowing that their products are good and have nice services, yet comparing to others like Samsung and Apple they are weak because those provide an outstanding products and services which consist of smartphones. So Nokia want instead of providing a good services and products to become like their competition and provide an outstanding products and
Reasons For The Failure Of Nokia
So, what can we learn from this unexpected incident of Nokia? It's simple. Any organization either a high profile one or an SMB, besides growing up in technology domain should make their own way in public domain. How? Nokia tried to be unique from the rest manufacturers and adopted Windows platform to express its
Nokia Case Study
Nokia started off as a paper manufacturing company and transitioned into a manufacturing cables and electronics company in the late 1960s. In the 1990s with the fall of the Soviet Union, demand for infrastructure for wireless network grew because Finland telecom infrastructure sector was deregulated due to an economic crisis at that time sooner than other European countries, which helped catapult Nokia even further. In 1996, with the launch of Nokia’s first “smart” phone, the Nokia 9000 communicator, they plunged into the mobile phone industry. Fast forward to 2006, the industry was flooded with a range of both flip and feature phones and Nokia was dominating the mobile phone
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Case Study Of The Collapse Of Nokia
Nokia, which overtook Motorola in 1998 to take the crown of biggest phone manufacturer of world, lost its prestigious crown after struggling for last 3 years. The 4 costly mistakes that lead to Nokia losing the battle are described in this article. Nokia launched its Symbian 60 series in year 2002 which initially had a good market response but with the introduction of Apple iOS in 2007 and Android in 2008, the OS race was completely taken over by the two giants. The reasons for collapse of Symbian OS is lack of applications and UI (User Interface). After facing competition from iOS and Android, Nokia continuously tried to improve their Symbian OS but it was mostly following the UI of Android and iOS and was not creating something unique. Secondly, the company failed to look into the need of available applications in gaining market share. The company made the biggest mistake to take a leap of faith in Windows in 2011. At that point of time, the company already was in declining condition and trusting Windows which was new in the field to regain its status was the biggest mistake the company made. tiff competition from Samsung and Apple, and lack on focus on innovation was the second big reason of collapse. Even if users could ignore the OS, the the hardware features which Nokia was rolling out were quiet late as compared its major competitors Samsung and Apple.
Failure Of Nokia
As it was stated in the introduction, with the smartphone revolution, Nokia failed to understand the future direction of mobile devices. This underestimation of the rising innovation, in terms of global market shares, led to a drastic decline – from 2007 to 2013, the company lost 45.2% of its market shares (Statista, 2014). It is worth mentioning, that in 2004, at Nokia’s Espoo headquarters, researchers have presented a mobile phone prototype, which was able to connect to the internet and it was controlled by a touch-screen (O'Brien, 2010). However, Nokia’s senior management had rejected the idea, stating that it would be an expensive failure to develop it. That allowed American and Asian companies to become leading companies, as they adopted a more innovative idea of the smartphone. Despite the fact that the company started to lose its market shares to competitors, Nokia tried to take the role as strategic innovator by
Nokia: Values That Make a Company Global
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Creativity and Innovation in the Workplace - Nokia Case Study
This report was to investigate how the Nokia Corporation has been innovative since it was originally founded as Nokia AB in 1865. This report also looks into what Nokia has done to be considered innovative, how that innovation has paid off and what challenges the company faces now, and in the future.
Do You Think That Resistance from Employees Is Likely to Be the Biggest Problem for a Business That Wants to Reinvent Itself? Justify Your Answer with Reference to Samsung Electronics and or/Other Organisations That You Know.
Nokia will have to manage this change closely in order to make sure that they are working as efficiently as possible. For this, they would need to communicate well, as this will run through all the stages on the workforce. Elop achieved this primarily with the burning platform, but would need to pursue this through the reinvention. Training is very important when dealing with emerging products because they need to be of a high enough standard in order to gain a market share. Therefore, the workforce have to be well trained so that they understand the tasks that they are given. Nokia must also check on how individuals are coping with the change to prevent
Becoming Quality Officers At The United States Air Force
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Change Management Essay
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The staff will need to learn how to use the new equipment and it may affect the duties required of them. Their jobs may have to be redesigned. New company strategies, which may involve the change in management practices, enterprise agreements and industrial relations, will create a vast variety of needs for change. So will the attitudes of the workers. In fact employee attitudes can create the need for new company strategies in the case of job dissatisfaction, poor team spirit, lack of commitment and job insecurity.
Analysis: The Tempered Radicals
Though such dilemmas exist, there are a few leaders who love their work and would want to continue and succeed in such organizations, where they believe in constructive change. They do not believe in angered confrontations as they know that it would lead to nowhere and also wouldn’t want to remain silent either. Instead, they believe it as a quiet challenge and work effectively to make significant changes patiently, if it requires patience. Meyerson called them “Tempered Radicals”, who try to make radical changes, but in a quiet way.
Nokia and Finland
1. How was Finland able to move from a sleepy economy to one of the most competitive nations in the world by the end of the 1990’s?
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Table of Contents
Nokia Case Study Assignment Help
Research Problem: The analysis of the case of Nokia leads to the identification of the main research problem which has been the declining market share of Nokia despite having huge R&D investment made by the company. The case analysis revealed that Nokia spends excessively on R&D as compared to entire industry expenditure on R&D, but despite making such huge expenditure, the company is not able to introduce smart phones that can compete against iPhone as produced by Apple Inc. This has adversely affected the market shares of the company and it has become a significant managerial issue for the company to revive its brand name.
Rationale for Investigating the Problem: The main rationale behind investigating this managerial issue is that despite making significant efforts in terms of R&D expenditure, Nokia is not able to present a smart phone that can compete strongly against iPhone. Thus, the investigation of this issue will lead to the identification of the factors that caused company to face such severe threat of declining market share and the actual reasons for the problems could be better identified.
Argument in Carrying out this Investigation: On the basis of analysis of Nokia’s case, it has been argued that R&D activities alone would not enable a company to achieve higher market success; rather, it should be used in combination with the managerial leadership abilities to effectively utilise the findings and investment made in R&D.
An Analysis of the Case of Nokia
The performance of a critical analysis of the Nokia’s case indicates that the major issue with the company is its declining share price because of its inability to bring newer products into the market. The case of Nokia revealed that it spent $40 billion on research and development which is almost equivalent to four times what Apple has spent in the same financial year. Despite making such huge R&D expenditure, Nokia was unable to launch a smart phone that can effectively compete against the iPhone. The managerial issue as evident in the case of Nokia suggests that the management has not been able to introduce the right smart phones in the market that can compete with Apple and Samsung. The managerial problems as faced by Nokia is also clearly evident from the fact that Nokia has actually developed few products and designs, but the managers within the company failed to introduce them into the market on time. This is the major strategic blunder on the part of management of the company. Further, its inability to compete with the iPhone has resulted into the shift in its focus from smart phones to its basic phones. This is the major contributing managerial problem which led to the problem of declining market share of Nokia (Smith, Collins and Clark, 2005).
According to a study conducted by Rosier, Morgan and Cadogan (2010), the principle challenge to firms is with respect to the ways in which strategies developed are implemented successfully by them. The managers within the organisations have a critical role to play in performing the successful implementation of strategies in order to achieve success. But this aspect has been lacking in respect to Nokia in the case, as the management of the company has failed to cope up with the market situation. As per the case, Nokia led the wireless revolution in 1990 and it was the first company to enter into the world of smart phones. However, with the introduction of the smart phone era, the company is racing to roll out the competitive products, as its share prices have collapsed significantly. Instead of bringing new smart phones to the market, the company seems to withdraw as it is unable to launch a competitive smart phone as against Apple iPhone. This aspect clearly indicates that the lack of sufficient ability of the management at Nokia to revolutionise the market through its smart phones (Rosier, Morgan and Cadogan, 2010).
Another major area of problem as identified from the case analysis of Nokia is that the company has recently introduced a series of Nokia Lumia phones which is basically a type of windows phone. But such introduction of Nokia Lumia phones has not been successful in allowing the company to achieve the lost market shares. Despite making huge expenditure over the R&D function, Nokia is still struggling to turn its new ideas into its product and the resulting impact is its further decline in the sales and market position across industry. On the basis of analysis, it has been argued that the innovation is essential to be performed in order to achieve success in the market, as the introduction of windows phone by Nokia has resulted into similar kinds of phones being brought by Samsung into the market. This has affected the performance of Nokia’s Lumia phones significantly and it is clearly evident over the market shares of the company (Bowman and Gatignon, 1995).
The fact that innovation is crucial to a firm’s success is also supported by Panne, Beers and Kleinknecht (2003) by indicating that innovation allows the firms with opportunities to offer something new and distinctive apart from their competitors. However, in order to achieve success in innovation, there are various factors that act as determining factors and these include firm’s culture, the experience with innovation, the multidisciplinary character of R&D team and the support from the top management. The analysis of the case of Nokia suggests that all these aspects are mostly lacking in respect to the company, as the managers were not able to introduce the new concepts into their products, the R&D team failed to utilise the key findings in introducing new products into the market and finally, the management’s approach also seems to be highly laggard, as despite introducing new and innovative smart phones, the management has undertaken decisions to take back their approach from introducing new and highly advanced smart phones to other small range of phones (Panne, Beers and Kleinknecht, 2003).
The analysis of the case leads to the identification of another major significant issue as faced by Nokia is the timely introduction of new products into the market. It has been argued that the higher level of benefits can be achieved from a product provided it has been introduced in the market on timely basis. This requires a proactive approach on the part of management of an organisation, as the important findings from the R&D activities should be reflected in their products on timely basis so as to achieve maximum level of benefits from it (Baker and Sinkula, 2005). However, in respect to Nokia, this aspect has been significantly lacking, as the analysis of the case revealed that Nokia has devised the concept of a colour touch screen phone which is set above a single button and this concept is mainly planned by the Nokia team seven years before Apple Inc. The device was shown locating a restaurant, playing a racing game and ordering lipstick. But the main issue was that it remained a plan for the company, and it never launched its innovative ideas into the market through its product offering. If the company have introduced all such innovations in its product offerings to its customer for the first time, it would have better position throughout the entire mobile industry.
Thus, the analysis of the Nokia case indicates that there are various managerial issues as faced by the company which has resulted into significant decline in the level of market share. Despite making efforts in the form of huge spender in R&D activities, Nokia failed to introduce new smart phones that could compete against iPhone and the inability to introduce its innovative ideas into the market through its product have all caused the mobile phone company to bear significant amount of loss in its market share.
Conclusion and Recommendations
In this report, a critical investigation of the management issues as faced by Nokia from the analysis of a case study has been performed, and the investigation revealed significant number of issues that are faced by the organisation behind its core problem of declining market shares. The analysis of the case leads to identification that Nokia made huge R&D spending and despite such effort, it has not been able to launch a smart phone that can compete in the industry. The major managerial issues as identified from the case analysis suggest that Nokia has failed to successfully integrate the strategies as developed by it into its products. Secondly, it has performed innovation in launching new smart phones, but they were not that innovative to compete against iPhones and other smart phones by Samsung, and thirdly, even after devising important innovative concepts, it failed to introduce them into the markets. This is mainly because of ineffectiveness on the part of management at Nokia, as they failed to create an impact in the market with their windows smart phones.
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in Food for thought , Growth Mindset
Where did nokia go wrong (and six lessons you can learn from them).
- by Charles Gaudet
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Nokia, once a dominant player in the mobile phone market, struggled to adapt as smartphones became more popular and ultimately lost market share to competitors such as Apple and Samsung.
We can learn much from the cascading business failures that resulted in Nokia’s eventual downfall.
Despite its former dominance in the mobile phone market, Nokia’s failure serves as a reminder of the importance of staying ahead of industry trends and continuing to innovate in order to remain competitive.
It was October 1998, and Nokia was the industry leader in mobile phone sales all over the world. Since the early days of the mobile phone industry, Nokia had been synonymous with success and quality products. The phones were available worldwide, covering low-end to high-end prices.
By 1999, the company’s profit had reached $4 billion. It seemed that they could do no wrong. Even in June 2007, when Apple introduced the first iPhone, Nokia still owned 50% of the market. For a long time, its young leadership led the company to success.
But in 2010, things took a turn for the worse… It took only six years for Nokia to lose around 90% of its market value, and the company never recovered. Critical mistakes led to the mobile phone giant’s fall from grace.
Nokia’s history only serves to prove that no company is infallible, especially in the face of technological progress.
What were some of their critical mistakes?
Cocky leadership, a lack of vision, and inferior technology were the unholy trinity of errors that contributed to Nokia’s downfall. Here’s what you can learn from their biggest mistakes and errors in judgment.
1. Always Account for What Your Customers Want.
Even being an industry leader doesn’t guarantee success, as Nokia’s downfall shows. It’s important to continuously innovate and adapt to stay ahead of the competition.
Nokia failed to adapt to change and reposition itself in the market. After Apple introduced its game-changing smartphone, consumers saw what the future of the industry could provide. They understood the long-term benefits of developing mobile technology better than Nokia did.
So, here’s one of the first lessons from Nokia that you should learn: never rely solely on your brand’s reputation to retain customers and acquire new ones.
Nokia repeatedly failed by relying on the same inferior technology, despite customer demands… All because it knew that most target audiences still felt very positive towards the manufacturer.
Being an industry leader will only get you so far. Once the demand for your product goes away, your reputation will change for the worse if you don’t adapt quickly.
Demand generation is a hot topic among marketers today. But many people believe that demand geeneation and lead generation are somehow the same thing.
Read more about the difference between the two concepts here in our related piece, “Demand Generation vs. Lead Generation: What’s the Difference?”
2. Marketing is as Important as Your Product.
A strong product alone is not enough to ensure success, as Nokia learned. A solid marketing strategy is just as crucial to reaching and engaging customers.
Nokia never had a strong marketing strategy in the smartphone industry, at least not like its competitors did.
What did Apple and Samsung do? Each year they announced their new smartphone version – with improved features. This marketing strategy was all about creating anticipation and generating excitement. It kept people interested.
Another lesson to take away from the Nokia disaster is that marketing is as important as the product itself. Create a flagship product, but don’t forget to market it accordingly.
Even if you only make small improvements to your product over time, strategic marketing can still generate excitement for minor upgrades too.
3. Ensure All of Your Departments Work in Alignment.
In a business context, it means that different departments, subsidiaries, or divisions within a company can work together in a coordinated way to achieve more than they would be able to individually. Companies that can create and maintain a culture of synergy can improve their competitiveness, productivity, and profitability.
Once the competition in the industry got fiercer, Nokia began to crumble from the inside. Different departments in the company stopped coordinating and began competing.
So, where did Nokia go wrong?
It failed in its organizational structure and interdepartmental communication. Insufficient coordination among departments often leads to a variety of operational issues. In Nokia’s case, it led to many delays in the development of their OS.
Why is this important to you?
Because departments that are out of sync fall behind in their delivery of products, research, upgrades, and more. This leads to the company losing out to its competitors and contributes to a rapid loss of market value.
4. Don’t Foster a “Shoot the Messenger” Culture.
The failure of Nokia serves as a reminder that a corporate culture of listening and learning is crucial for staying ahead of the curve. Companies must be open to feedback and willing to adapt to changing market conditions in order to remain competitive
The Nokia leadership that once brought success couldn’t adapt to the new trends. By most accounts, the top managers created a dictatorial, rather than an innovative, culture.
When times get tough, you have to adapt… But before you do that, you need to learn how to change. Always embrace new ideas from employees and nurture a culture of listening and learning.
Remember that the company culture doesn’t grow from the bottom up. It’s the other way around. Leaders should establish clear company culture values and lead by example.
Empower your employees and encourage collaboration and innovation. It’s critical in establishing a strong foundation and culture, both of which are building blocks of a strong business.
5. Manage Your Company’s Resources.
Nokia’s downfall serves as a reminder that the market is always changing and companies must be constantly assessing their position and exploring new opportunities for growth. A failure to pivot in response to shifting market conditions can lead to a loss of market share and ultimately, failure
The lack of innovation at Nokia didn’t come solely from bad leadership decisions and out-of-sync departments. The cellphone maker had experienced massive, rapid growth. In fact, the business model targeted financial growth and not innovation.
Therefore, when it needed to change, the company didn’t have the resources to sustain innovation. Nokia didn’t have a vision for the future. Everything was about short-term gains, and nothing prepared the company for competing in a new field.
You can avoid this by managing your resources wisely. Assess your market position often and explore new directions you could pivot to.
Even if you don’t make a dramatic shift, it’s still good to know what your options are… And how much you might have to set aside to compete on a different playing field.
6. Focus on Hiring the Most Qualified People.
The success of a company is not only dependent on the products or services it offers, but also on the people behind it. A great hiring process that focuses on bringing in individuals who can solve existing problems and empowers them to take action is crucial to solidifying a company’s position in the market.
Another aspect of Nokia’s failing was not having the right people in the right places. Its top management lacked the technical ability to compete in the new market, and middle management didn’t have the motivation to make specific issues known.
A company culture based on open communication can solve some of these problems, but it’s not enough for ideas to reach the ears of upper management. Management needs to understand those ideas, too.
To solidify your company, you need a great hiring process. Focus on people who can solve existing problems, and place them in positions with the power to do something about those problems.
The downfall of Nokia serves as a reminder that a long string of bad decisions can lead to failure, even for a once successful company. But looking back, none of the company’s mistakes were unavoidable. A strong focus on data-driven decision making, thorough analysis and a holistic approach to assessing risks and opportunities can help a company avoid similar pitfalls.
A long string of bad decisions led to Nokia’s downfall, but looking back, none of the company’s mistakes were unavoidable. There are many lessons you can learn from the fall of the technology giant to ensure your business will succeed.
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focuses on Nokia and aims to find out whether the conclusions of the SOMO report and the publicity that followed afterwards had any harmful effects for the reputation of Nokia among consumers in The Netherlands. The target groups of this research are consumers and potential consumers of Nokia between the age of 18 and 65. Nokia is the largest supplier of a wide range of mobile phones and its goal is to have the best quality products and services in the mobile phone industry. The company has a strict
offerings NOKIA Nokia ‚ originally a Finnish forestry products company formed is 1865‚ is now the world’s top seller of mobile phones. Over the years‚ Nokia has made everything from toilet paper to television sets and tires. But in 1992‚ incoming CEO Jorma Ollila focused all of the company’s resources on telecommunications. Nokia’s first digital phones appeared on the market in 1993. At the time‚ Nokia expected to sell only about 400‚000 units. Instead‚ it sold 20 million. By 1998‚ Nokia was selling
Nokia: Values That Make a Company Global
STraTeGiC Hr MaNaGeMeNT case study with teaching notes Nokia : Values That Make a Company Global By Geraldine Willigan‚ MBA Project team Author: SHRM project contributor: External contributor: Copy editing: Design: Geraldine Willigan‚ MBA Nancy A. Woolever‚ SPHR Ram Charan‚ Ph.D. Katya Scanlan‚ copy editor Terry Biddle‚ graphic designer © 2009 Society for Human Resource Management. Geraldine Willigan‚ MBA. This case was prepared by Geraldine Willigan‚ MBA‚ former editor at Harvard Business Review
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C.Executive Summary 5 D.Introduction 6 E.PESTEL Analysis 7 F.Porter’s Five Forces Industry Analysis 10 G.Key Success Factors 12 H.Appraisal of Nokia’s Resources 13 I.Assessment of Nokia’s Financial Resources 15 J.Review of Options and Recommendations for Future Strategic Direction 16 K.Recommendations for Successful Implementation of Strategies 18 L.Conclusion 19 M.List of References 20 Acknowledgement I would like to express my gratitude to my lecturer Mr. G V Nathan
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dominating the global market‚ Nokia is finally challenging its status quo. This day saw Nokia Music Store opening its door to music lovers in Australia – the eighth media store after Britain‚ Ireland‚ Germany‚ Italy‚ Finland‚ Netherlands and Singapore. The Nokia Music Store contains millions of tracks from both global and local artists and users will be able to download songs to their computer supported by Windows XP or Vistas PC and transfer them to their mobile phones be it Nokia or other brands. Songs
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1. What Nokia should do next http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=2&sid=a1606512-2fe5-4502-b82f-c6387f85f619%40sessionmgr10&hid=21&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=a9h&AN=90188081 In the end‚ I decommissioned my £10 Nokia 1100 out of vanity three years ago. It had survived countless mishaps‚ including one memorable death-defying dive into a cup of hot tea. Unlike my iPhone‚ its battery could trundle along for at least a week and no app could be more useful than its built-in torch
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Nokia Corporation (Finnish: Nokia Oyj‚ Swedish: Nokia Abp; Finnish pronunciation: [ˈnokiɑ]‚ English /ˈnɒkiə/) (OMX: NOK1V‚ NYSE: NOK) is aFinnish multinational communications and information technology corporation headquartered in Keilaniemi‚ Espoo‚ Finland. Its principal products are mobile telephones and portable IT devices. It also offers Internet services including applications‚ games‚ music‚ media and messaging‚ and free-of-charge digital map information and navigation services through
give you some of the basic informati-on about the discussed company . I. Introduction of the company Although the companies history reaches back to the nineteenth century‚ we will not go into it‚ simply because there is no need to know it and our paper will be unders-tandable without these facts. In may 1992 the finnish company Nokia started to focus on telecommunications‚ and they are selling the first GSM-mobilephone. The companies goal in 1994 was to sell about five hundred thousand mobile
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A BRAND AUDIT PROJECT REPORT ON NOKIA Group: 9 2012 Submitted To: Dr. Tejash Pujara & Dr. BhaveshVanpariya 12/9/2012 INDEX | OBJECTIVE | | SCOPE | | APPROACH | | | | | | | | | | Objectives The objective of the brand audit is to conduct an in-depth examination of a major brand and suggest ways to improve and leverage that brand equity by providing recommendations to the brand concerning how the brand should be managed over the
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Innovate Or Die Ask a European about Nokia and a faraway look will come into their eye‚ a wistful tone creep into their voice. During the late 1990s and early 2000s the 147-year-old Finnish company became a global technology star: the world’s No. 1 mobile maker and the first brand of phone everyone owned. In some emerging markets‚ so the story goes‚ the word ‘ Nokia ’ became a generic term for ‘mobile phone.’ But becoming synonymous with phones is where it all went wrong. There can be little doubt
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Brief discription Nokia is a Finnish multinational communications and information technology corporation with headquarters in Keilaniermi‚ Espoo‚ Finland. Its principal products are mobile telephones and portable IT devices. It also offers internet services including applications‚ games‚ music‚ media‚ and messaging‚ and free-of-charge digital map information and navigation services. Nokia has a joint venture with Siemens‚ Nokia Siemens Networks‚ which provide telecommunications network
1. Does Nokia have a truly global strategy‚ rather than just a series of regional strategies? Explain. Yes‚ it does have a global strategy. The global strategy of Nokia is the foundation of all the regional strategies and that is based on overall consumer needs. They found out the main consumer needs is focused on selling products (phones) as lowest price all over the world with its simple‚ easy and basic models. Also beside that Nokia has series of regional strategies that use most advanced technologies
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Introduction: As a former global leader in the cell phone industry, Nokia have a history of great ability to adapt new markets with a solid strategy. Formed in 1865, Nokia started out as a lumber mill and moved on to the production of electricity and rubber. In 1992, Nokia decided to focus solely on the cell phones industry and rapidly obtained great market share, and later became pioneers of the wireless revolution which derived the smartphones. Despite this impressive past and former position in the cell phone industry, it is obvious from the case study that Nokia have several problems causing the crucial recession of its market share the past years.
One of the problems is the slow decision making which halts the possibility of innovative activities.
Despite a staggering cost of 40 billion dollars on Research and Development, none of Nokia’s cell phones reached the market due to the bad decision making and internal rivalries. In the cell phone industry, it is crucial that you act fast or else you will be outrun by the competitors, which is exactly what happened with Nokia.
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“ She followed all my directions. It was really easy to contact her and respond very fast as well. ”
Rothaermel, Hess (2010, p. 13) states that consistent innovation is the factor that drives the worlds successfully companies and explains that innovation is a crucial competitive advantage for companies in a harsh economic time as it allows them to change the market in their favour and hopefully become market leader. Without any changes in the decision making process and in the innovative culture, Nokia will keep declining, as their competitors such as Apple and HTC Corporation will keep being in front and control the market.
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This paper will argue that, in order to achieve a bigger market share and a better competitive advantage, Nokia needs to speed up their decision making and change their innovative culture and the linkage between these activities. Relevant theory will be discussed as well as recommendations for future activities will be provided, in order to get Nokia back on track.
Analysis and Argument The decision making process from the management of a company is a crucial process in both internal and external perspectives. It determines the current situation and the future of the company, and has to remain continuous due to the constant interactions from the environment. The decision making process determines whether the company succeed or fail when launching a new product on the market, and that is why the company has to know whether the market is ready for their product or not. Baum, J.R. and Wally, S. (2003) states that a fast pace of the decision making is crucial when competitive advantage is desired in a market, as the new product you are launching will be adopted in an early stage and enter the market quicker than your competitors.
This argument is supported by Eisenhardt (1989; as cited in Zehir, C., Mehtap, Ö. 2008 p. 1) who has conducted a study of eight high-tech firms and concluded that the most profitable of these eight firms, were the ones with the fastest decision making process. A more superior study was completed by Judge and Miller (1991; as cited in Zehir, C., Mehtap, Ö. 2008 p. 1) who stated that there is no linkage between the speed of decision making process and the performance of a company only with the exception of fast-moving environments, such as the cell phone industry, where it was discovered that these participating companies had higher performance and fast decision making processes.
The cell phone industry is a fast-moving environment due to the development of new technology and constant changes, and it is in this industry that Nokia is located. Finally, Zehir, C., Mehtap, Ö. (2008) argues in the light of the above evidence and personal studies, that a strategy with fast decision making will lead to competitive advantage. The importance of a fast decision making strategy is supported by the fortune of Nokia from the case study. With a very slow decision making and the sacking of several products, followed up by internal disagreements, the competitors in the fast-moving external environment suddenly started to outrun Nokia, which didn’t manage to address their internal abilities, such as the innovativeness.
According to Andersen, T.J. (2001; as cited in Zehir, C., Mehtap, Ö. 2008 p. 4), especially this innovativeness reflects the company’s capability to be the first in their environment to launch a product or system, and create competitive advantage and corporate performance. Han, J.K., Kim, N., Srivastava, R.K. (1998) supports this theory and believes that the innovativeness serves the purpose of being a mediator between the company’s market orientation, and the company’s performance. Nokia have used a huge amount of expenses to obtain this market orientation, so one could argue that more efficient innovation is the key to reach better performance.
This precise opinion is what Blundell, R., Griffith, R., Van Reenen, J. (1999) states, as they also links the innovation of a company, with the achievement of greater market share and market stock value. From the above mentioned theories of faster decision making strategy and an efficient innovation performance and the associating arguments of these theories, you can argue that a relationship and cooperation between them is crucial and inevitable. This theory is supported by Zehir, C., Mehtap, Ö. (2008) who defines that the fast decision making combined with innovative performance will lead to better corporate performance. This relationship might be the key to get Nokia back on track and back at the top of the cell phone industry. Recommendation
It is recommended that Nokia change their decision making strategy immediately and become more aware of the changes in the external environment. Nokia ought to design its decision making strategy around Eisenhardt, K. M. (1999) four keys to decision making strategy. First, Nokia needs to establish collective intuition by hosting regular meetings and realistic cases for the management department, which will develop their ability to discover threats and opportunities in an early stage and more precisely. Second, they must assemble diverse teams and challenge them through heuristic and stressing situations with numerous alternatives, so the teams will improve their decision making ability under pressure.
Third, Nokia needs to discipline the timing of the decision making through paced time schedules, prototyping and consensus in the teams to maintain the momentum in the strategic choices. Lastly, emphasize a common goal and a clear set of rules, and remember to have fun. These tactics avoid that the decision makers are getting into interpersonal conflicts and waste the time on politics, which Nokia already have used incredible amounts of time doing without any luck. The execution of these four keys leads towards a more effective strategy, making the decision making process a cornerstone of the strategy. These four keys with the team based approach that is striving to create a common goal and keeping the process fun are to be transferred to the innovation department in order to optimize this as well.
Teams of innovation and development are to be established, instead of letting the employees fight an internal battle for the right to keep their jobs. This battle creates disorder in the internal community, and is discouraging the employees and affects their efficiency. Instead, it is crucial that the innovative department works towards a common goal and is continuously challenged in order for them to keep the momentum and keep improving, while they are having fun doing it. Conclusion
From the arguments presented in this paper, it is apparent that in order for Nokia to return to the top of the cell phone industry and reconquer the lost market share, they need to change the decision making strategy entirely, and develop a much faster and efficient one. This will allow them to launch new products to the market more frequently and increase the opportunity for successful products.
These frequent products will promote the innovative performance and make the company more adaptable to the many changes in the environment, and allow them to affect the market themselves. It is not possible to choose which argument that is the most suitable, as they relate to each other because a faster decision making process leads to more efficient innovative performance, which leads to better corporate performance and more market share. The snowball effect will emerge, but Nokia has to start rolling the ball. With this in mind, these changes will not do it alone. Several corporate changes in the entire organization must be performed in order for this to succeed, but the history of Nokia will help them in this challenge, as they have faced great organizational changes before and know what it takes.
Rothaermel, F.T & Hess, M (2010), ’Innovation Strategies Combined’, MIT Sloan Management Review, Vol. 51, No. 3, pp. 13-15, viewed 20 April 2013, ProQuest Research Library,
Eisenhardt, K.M (1989), ‘Making fast strategic decisions in high-velocity environments’, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 32 No. 3, pp. 543-76
Judge, W.Q & Miller, A (1991), ‘Antecedents and outcomes of decision speed in different environmental contexts’, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 34 No. 2, pp. 449-63
Baum, J.R & Wally, S (2003), ‘Strategic decision speed and firm performance’, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 24 No. 11, pp. 1107-29
Zehir, C & Mehtap, Ö (2008), ‘A field research on the relationship between strategic decision-making speed and innovation performance in the case of Turkish large-scale firms’, Management Decision, Vol. 46, No. 5, pp. 709-724, viewed 20 April 2013, ProQuest Research Library, DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00251740810873473
Han, J.K, Kim, N & Srivastava, R.K (1998), ‘Market orientation and organizational performance: Is innovation a missing link?’, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 62, No. 4, pp. 30-45, viewed 20 April 2013, ProQuest Research Library,
Andersen, T.J (2001), ‘Information technology, strategic decision-making approaches and organizational performance in different industrial settings’, Journal of Strategic Information Systems, Vol. 10, pp. 101-19
Blundell, R, Griffith, R & Van Reenen, J. (1999), ‘Market share, market value and innovation in a panel of British manufacturing firms’, The Review of Economic Studies, Vol. 66, No. 228, pp. 529-554, viewed 21 April 2013, ProQuest Research Library,
Eisenhardt, K. M (1999) ‘Strategy as strategic decision making‘, Sloan Management Review, Vol. 40, No. 3, pp. 65-72, viewed 21 April 2013, ProQuest Research Library,
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Advancement in technology has facilitated the growth of mobile and telecommunication industry. The sector is dominated by leading world producers who depend on their operational management decision to remain afloat in the competitive industry; some of international companies in the industry include Samsung, Nokia, Sony-Ericson, Apples, and Google Android-powered phones.
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Nokia has been a leader in the industry in innovation, sales, and market share, however the increased competition has triggered for strategic decisions to be made by the company.
Decisions are the driving force in any organization. The quality of decision that managers make give their organization direction and focus. The growth and competitiveness of an organization is influenced by the quality as well as acceptability of decisions made by managers at all levels (Zi-Lin, Kwanghui and Pho-Kam, 2006). This paper analysis the strategic direction taken by Nokia Phone Company, will also undertake a strength and weakness analysis of the company.
Brief history of the company
Nokia is an international phone company, with its headquarters in Finland; according to the company’s website, the company currently enjoys a market share of about 37% and aims at increasing the market share to over 40% by the end of 2011. It has a strong brand all over the world, the companies positioning statement is “technology connecting people”. The company’s headquarters are located in Keilaniemi, Espoo.
Currently it has a total number of employees over 123,000 distributed in various countries. It has it presence as a selling point of full branch in over 120 countries. In the year 2009, the company was able to make a profit of €1.2 billion this was over 10% than what it had recorded the previous year. The idea of the company was started in 1865 however; it became a telecommunication company in 1960’s (Nokia Official website, 2010).
Nokia Vision, Mission, Purpose and value of its marketing materials
Nokia is one international company that has a simple and straightforward mission statement as “Connecting People”. Its vision statement is “Our strategic intent is to build great mobile products” (Nokia Official website, 2010), this vision statement has more focus on the phone section of the company as the main business segment that the company has. The main purpose of the company is “Our job is to enable billions of people everywhere to get more of life’s opportunities through mobile” (Nokia Official website, 2010).
To ensure that the company fulfils its vision, mission and purpose, it operates under marketing values and principles; they include innovation, products development, respect for the people and respect for research and development projects (Nokia Official website, 2010).
The current electronic market is fiancé and competitive, there are number of players in the industry that calls for Nokia to keep changing its operating policies and strategies. It has to keep changing its approach to ensure that it remains competitive. The main competitors of the company include Samsung, Apple, and Sony-Ericson.
To fight the competition, Nokia has engaged in a number of collaborations with other likeminded companies to ensure that it remains competitive. One of the recent strategic alliances that the company has made is strategic partnership with Microsoft to offer the company with the right software to compete effectively. The drive to remain competitive and offer high returns to the company has made the management to develop new strategies that will see it succeed (Reid, Plank and Richard, 2004).
Review marketing performance
Nokia has been a leader in the electronic industry however current innovations and venture of other international companies have hindered the companies continued leadership; the companies strength and innovativeness has made it world’s largest manufacturer of mobile phones.
In the first three quarter of 2010, the company enjoyed a market share of approximately 31% on average; however, the market share reduced to 30% in the last quarter of the year. The drop of the market share can be attributed to aggressive marketing and selling approaches adopted by its competitors mostly Apple Inc and Google Android-powered phones.
The company is also diversifying rapidly in laptops, IPods and I phone to enable it share a large market in the electronic industry. The results of 2010, were lower to those recorded in 2009 of 35% in the fourth quarter; so far, the marketing approach that the company has adopted is doing well in the markets however, the trend is alarming and calling for something extra to be done if the company has to remain in the forefront of the market.
Nokia has a positioning statement as “connecting people”, the statement is deeply rooted in the people who’s the company aims at serving through its products. The positioning statement with a single grasp describes what the company is up to and what it aims at offering.
One of the major weaknesses that the companies marketing campaigns have had is that they have been only inclined to advertising and selling of phones; however, the company has more products that it can use to increase its market, revenue as well as sales.
Another problem that can be seen with its structure is the presence of its research and development plants; the last quarter of 2010 say the company have research and development outlets in only 16 countries from its present countries of about 120. The representation of the research and development team is thus not a representative of the company’s total presence (John and Mowen, 2004).
Nokia strength is ventured in its strong brand name that is internationally recognized. There is a wide recognition of these products in all parts of the world. The strength of the company is undoubtedly be engineered by its internal managerial mechanisms. In order to have a competitive edge in selling its product and services, it will be advisable for the company to take advantage of its ability to compete favorably with equal players in the market.
The company’s products are fitted with different features and yet they are sold at an affordable cost (Sadler, 2003). One weakness that Nokia is having is having a slow rate of products development; in the near past, the company has been producing products after other companies have invented them. It has become a company of copying technology instead of being a leader in developing the technologies (Ketels, 2006).
With globalization, the company has the chance of targeting international markets, it can expand its market share in other countries and improve its products to attain customer loyalty and retain it as well. The major threat facing the company is competition from other companies in the industry who seem to be more aggressive and are having consumer-targeted products. This has made the company shed some markets to these competitors (Peter, 2006).
Scope marketing opportunities
Opportunities are positives that a company can utilize for its benefits, one of the most outstanding opportunities that the company has is growth in globalization. Opportunities for the company are dependent on both the internal and external assessment criteria of the company’s profile of operation (Kotler & Armstrong, 2001). Some of the underlying opportunities for this company about the macro environment are the diversification of its activities.
When operating in more than one country, the company should ensure it well understands the marketing approach that it should implement for its success. Different countries call for different marketing approach depending with the people living in the area. There are some green markets or some markets that have not been fully utilized that the company should think of diversifying to, some of these are in developing countries who may be in need of basic phones (Hooley and Saunders, 1993).
With changes in markets and economic situation, different people are having different tastes; the company should aim at establishing niche markets with the available markets. For instance, the growth of the youthful population can have a niche to have highly integrated phones that can perform different tasks; this should be in the areas that the company should be going. It should not shy off to take challenge from its competitors like Apple and Androids who are driving the market through innovations (Michael 1997).
When the above opportunities have been seen and well ventured, the company is likely to have a growing profit gain as sales are likely to grow; on the other hand, when the company develops new products with times and aim at fulfilling consumer needs, it will likely win consumer confidence that grows loyalty with the company’s products. The viability of a new venture is dependent on how well the opportunity has been seen, tapped, and structures to venture in it have been developed (Earl, 1996).
Other products that Nokia should consider
Although the market is saturated with customer-focused products, Nokia still can come up with other innovative products to grow its portfolio. An area that seems green and still not ventured in is solar charged laptops: many people today are using laptops in their day-to-day activities, however they are limited by the life of their batteries. Laptops are electronic gadget, which must depend with a reliable source of electricity to be recharged. The company should think of coming up with policies and develop the products.
The innovation of solar-based laptops should target countries with high potential in laptop markets and they experience large spells of solar energy. They should be fitted with photoelectric cells that allow self-charging when exposed to solar energy. When such products are developed, the company is likely to remain competitive in the electronic gadgets industry.
Caribbean and African countries have not been fully utilized, the company can still venture in the markets and dominate them; in most of these countries, the company should look into low income earners thus it should provide phones and other electronic gadgets that fit these markets.
Diversification to solar laptops and venturing more aggressively in Caribbean and African countries is in line with the company’s mission, vision, purpose, objective as well as positioning statement. It will lead to an increased sales, increased profits , as well as customer base; the net result is dominance in the electronic industry.
Earl, P. ,1996. Management, Marketing and the Competitive Process. Williston: American International Distribution Corporation.
Hooley J., Saunders, J. ,1993. Competitive Strategy: the Key to Marketing Strategy. New York: Prentice Hall.
John, C. and Mowen, M., 2004. Consumer Behavior-A Framework. Beijing: Tsinghua University Press.
Ketels, C.,2006. Michael Porter’s Competitiveness Framework: Recent Learnings and New Research Priorities. Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade. 6(2),pp. 115-136.
Kotler, P. and Armstrong, G.,2001. Principles of marketing, 9th edn., Prentice Hall, London.
Michael P. ,1997. Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance. Beijing: Hua Xia Press.
Nokia Official website ., 2011. Nokia [online].
Peter, D.,2006. Marketing Management and Strategy . London: Post & Telecom Press.
Reid, A. Plank, R. and Richard, E. ,2004. Fundamentals of Business Marketing Research. New York: Best Business Books.
Sadler, P., 2003. Strategic Management . Binghamton: New Down Press.
Zi-Lin, L. , Kwanghui and Pho-Kam, W., 2006. Entry and Competitive Dynamics in the Mobile Telecommunications Market. Research Policy. 35(8), pp. 1147-1165.
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Case Study: Nokia’s Use of Cross-Functional Teams
O rganizations are creating cross-functional teams for the many benefits they provide (Boutchard, 2021). These teams work together to “collaborate to solve more complex problems” (Söderhjelm et al., 2016, p. 202). In such team endeavors, each member of the team works individually towards a common, or collective, goal (The Arbinger Institute, 2019). The Arbinger Institute (2019) says teams designed in this way, with a clear goal, allows organizations to enable “individuals and teams to improve their contributions within the organization without waiting for directives from those who have a broader view of the organization’s interconnected parts” (p. 122). This article will review aspects of Nokia’s use of such teams; recent reporting highlighted Nokia’s successful rollout of a cross-functional team approach and changes the company made to its leadership style to assist these new teams. Finally, the article will suggest ways to foster greater teamwork within Nokia.
A Brief History of Nokia’s Problems
According to Lamberg et al. (2019), in the late 1980s and early 1990s the storied Finnish corporation (founded in 1865 according to the company’s website (Nokia, n.d.)) Nokia was a company in crisis. After divesting itself of many product lines, Nokia began focusing its efforts on manufacturing mobile phones. As the 1990s closed, “mobile phones clearly produced the majority of both the net sales and the operating profit” for Nokia (p. 578). However, the success was short-lived as Google’s Android and Apple’s iOS operating systems took off; Nokia had invested heavily in its own mobile operating system called Symbian and then partnered with Microsoft on their mobile phone venture to little avail (Lamberg et al., 2019). The partnership ended in 2013 when Microsoft bought Nokia’s Devices and Services unit and folded it into the software giant (Wingfield, 2013).
Looking for new business opportunities, Nokia desperately needed the benefits that cross-functional teams bring to organizations: enhanced business agility, better innovation, increased employee engagement, better insights, greater communication skills, improved management skills, and fewer diversity issues according to Boutchard (2019).
What Characteristics Make Nokia a Team-Based Organization?
Söderhjelm et al. (2016) state that cross-functional teams start with bringing people together from different departments. This allows for improved “access to resources, such as diverse perspectives, broader skill sets, and new ideas” (Nanda et al., 2021, para. 3). Citing a larger automotive dealership as an example, Nanda et al. (2021) state such teams bring in resources from any part of the organization when their expertise is required.
What did Nokia do to satisfy this basic requirement Söderhjelm et al. (2016) laid out? According to Boutchard (2021), “[t]he executives of Nokia Bell Labs used the idea of cross-functionality when they brought scientists and engineers together, each with exceptional skill sets” (para. 86). This process also allowed Nokia to gain the benefits Boutchard (2021) notes from cross-functional teams. Specifically, he notes Nokia’s organizational culture improved and failure was a growth opportunity; these are examples of better management and improved innovation.
What Leadership Styles Does Nokia Use?
Leadership is key to the success of any organization, regardless of that organization’s purpose (Brownlee et al., 2019). It is vital for organizations that its leaders have a full arsenal of leadership capabilities available to meet the needs of the moment. As part of its transformation efforts, Nokia wanted to create a more consistent way of developing future leaders besides creating their cross-functional teams. According to Hakikat (2019), Nokia accomplished this via a multi-step process they detailed at a meeting of the top 250 leaders in the company. First, they build awareness of the need they have. Next, they embedded their new leadership framework in the organization. Third, they conducted assessments around leadership competencies they desired. Fourth, Nokia used this framework to their management process, e.g. for promotions. The last steps involved modeling the new leadership behaviors and operationalizing the approach through training coaches for support purposes.
How this ties to cross-functional teams is very specific. According to Mauri (2017), Nokia “lost its ability to anticipate the future” (p. 3). Specifically, Nokia did not understand the impact of Apple and Samsung (the primary promoters of Google’s Android operating system) on the mobile device market and therefore struggled in this disruptive environment (Mauri, 2017). Implementing cross-functional teams assisted with addressing this by fostering better innovation, but doing so required a new leadership style be in place. As Mauri (2017) notes, if organizations like Nokia are not ready for change and cannot pivot quickly, they will cease to be.
What can Nokia’s Leaders Do to Successfully Foster Teamwork?
One aspect Nokia could adopt to create better teamwork for their cross-functional teams is to use the Outward-Mindset Approach from The Arbinger Institute (2019). This process, shown in Figure 1, enables both teams and members to help each other achieve the common goal. It works by asking each team member to answer basic questions about their role and function around each of the four bolded areas shown.
Beginning with the Nokia cross-functional team member’s manager, Nokia’s leaders should make sure they completely understand that individual’s objectives. The Arbinger Institute (2019) recommends asking, “what do I need to do to make sure I am holding myself accountable for my contributions to my manager’s results?” (p. 123) or asking who they could work with on the team to better reach the manager’s goal. Moving clockwise to the team’s customers, the Nokia team members must understand who the actual customers are and their specific objectives (The Arbinger Institute, 2019). Only then will the team be able to meet their customer’ needs.
Outward-Mindset Approach to address needs, objectives, and challenges in various parties
Note : Adapted from “The Outward Mindset: How to Change Lives and Transform Organizations” by The Arbinger Institute (2019). Copyright 2019 by Arbinger Properties.
Continuing clockwise around the diagram, Nokia should ensure members on its cross-functional team seek to understand if their own direct reports on the team are growing and improving their skill sets; the team members should make sure they have communicated their aim clearly (The Arbinger Institute, 2019). Miscommunications up and down the chain of command about goals will create deviations and lead to missed targets and wasted resources. Finally, with the team’s peers, each member of Nokia’s cross-functional teams must ask whether they are helping or hindering the other member’s ability to accomplish their own work in furtherance of the stated goal according to The Arbinger Institute (2019).
With the Outward-Mindset Approach, Nokia gains the ability to mobilize individual teams and align their work towards the larger company objectives. As The Arbinger Institute notes, Nokia would be able to “energize an entire company to work on behalf of its customers — not just to provide a product or service but to enthusiastically innovate to meet the customers’ needs and help them achieve their own objective” (p. 69).
Bringing members together into a cross-functional team conveys many benefits. Nokia has done this (along with updating its leadership styles and training) to turn around its business through increased innovation and better management skills. While it is too soon to determine the complete effectiveness of Nokia’s approach, Bicheno (2021) notes that Nokia’s revenues are up nine percent. While significant, it is unclear how much of this is because of the changes Nokia made; it warrants additional research.
The Arbinger Institute. (2019). The outward mindset: How to change lives and transform organizations . Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
Bicheno, S. (2021, April 29). Nokia revenues grow 9% as network infrastructure bet finally starts to pay off . Telecoms.com. Retrieved February 26, 2022, from https://telecoms.com/509573/nokia-revenues-grow-9-as-network-infrastructure-bet-finally-starts-to-pay-off/
Boutchard, J. (2021, June 16). Top 4 companies that use cross-functional teams to drive innovation . Strategy Software for Planning & Execution. Retrieved February 25, 2022, from https://www.cascade.app/blog/cross-functional-teams-drive-innovation
Brownlee, M. T. J., Bricker, K., Schwab, K., & Dustin, D. (2019). Seven characteristics of highly effective leaders. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration , 37 (1), 154. Retrieved January 27, 2022, from https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A609836823/AONE?u=colstglobal&sid=bookmark-AONE&xid=e92e6c0e .
Hakikat, E. (2019, July 16). Nokia’s 7-step approach for turning its managers into real leaders . Inside HR. Retrieved February 25, 2022, from https://www.insidehr.com.au/nokias-managers-real-leaders/
Lamberg, J.-A., Lubinaitė, S., Ojala, J., & Tikkanen, H. (2019). The curse of agility: The Nokia Corporation and the loss of market dominance in mobile phones, 2003–2013. Business History , 63 (4), 574–605. https://doi.org/10.1080/00076791.2019.1593964
Mauri, T. (2017). Why leadership styles matter. Strategic Direction , 33 (1), 1–4. https://doi.org/10.1108/sd-10-2016-0141
Nanda, R., Copulsky, J., Phillips, A. N., & Kane, D. G. C. (2021, November 19). Teaming your way through disruption . Deloitte Insights. Retrieved February 25, 2022, from https://www2.deloitte.com/us/en/insights/topics/strategy/cross-functional-collaboration.html Nokia. (n.d.). Our history . Nokia. Retrieved February 26, 2022, from https://www.nokia.com/about-us/company/our-history/
Söderhjelm, T., Björklund, C., Sandahl, C., & Bolander-Laksov, K. (2016). Academic leadership: Management of groups or leadership of teams? A multiple-case study on designing and implementing a team-based development programme for academic leadership. Studies in Higher Education , 43 (2), 201–216. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2016.1160277
Wingfield, N. (2013, September 3). Microsoft to buy Nokia units and acquire executive . The New York Times. Retrieved February 25, 2022, from https://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/04/technology/microsoft-acquires-nokia-units-and-leader.html
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Cybersecurity, guitar, jazz, bourbon, rye, enterprise security architecture, current trophy husband. CISSP-ISSAP, CISM, CRISC, SCF, PMP at www.edwincovert.com
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