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Literature Review and Case Study on Convention Center

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Rupesh Shrestha

"A craft is a branch of profession that requires some particular kind of skilled work. In historical sense, particularly as pertinent to the Medieval history and earlier, the term is usually applied towards people occupied in small-scale production of goods. The meaning of craft and its values are ever-changing with development of new techniques and methods. Craft village is a one-stop craft destination which offers visitors a unique variety of craft-related activities and programmes. It is intended to be a “must visit" tourist destination. In this village, visitors will learn about Nepali handicraft through craft demonstrations & hands-on interactive sessions. Visitors will experience the interactive handicraft making besides viewing the techniques in which they make such fine masterpieces. It also accommodates various trading units. This project intends to provide spaces with forms and functions to foster the development of crafts that Nepal is known for. The art and craft gallery housed in its premises displays wide collections of handicraft products/artefacts based on time-honoured Nepali craft traditions. The core concept of the Craft gallery is education and highlights the craft heritage of Nepal and local handicraft production technologies. There are many handicrafts promoting agency in Nepal. They are private, semi-government and government agency with different scope and scale. But they lack adequate space which truly acknowledges the production, promotion and display of crafts. The project has opted for traditional principles in architectural design –character of a traditional settlement (tole)."

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Literature Review and Case Study on Convention Center

Literature Review and Case Study on Convention Center

Tribhuwan University Institute of Engineering DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE Central Campus, Pulchowk A REPORT ON LITERAT

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Tribhuwan University Institute of Engineering DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE Central Campus, Pulchowk A REPORT ON LITERATURE REVIEW AND CASE STUDY ON CONVENTION CENTER Submitted by: Submitted to: Name: Pukar Bhandari Prof. Mahesh Shrestha Roll no: 070/BAE/225 Ar. Saroj Raj Rajkarnikar Convention Center Design Studio VI Literature Review: 1.1 INTRODUCTION: “Convention is the name given to a general or formal meeting of a legislative body, social or economical group in order to provide information on a particular economic situation and in order to deliberate and consequently, establish consent on policies among the participants, usually of limited duration with set objectives but no determined frequency.” -Lawson Fred, Congress, Convention and Exhibition facilities: planning design and Management (Architectural press: London, page 9) The term Convention is widely used in much discipline. A ‘Convention’ word in general can be defined as o A large formal assembly of a group with common interests, such as a political party or trade union o The persons attending such an assembly o (U.S. politics) an assembly of delegates of one party to select candidates for office o (Diplomacy) an international agreement second only to a treaty in formality o A telecommunications convention o Any agreement, compact, or contract o The most widely accepted or established view of what is thought to be proper behavior, good taste etc. Convention – A large meeting of member of profession, a political party, etc. Center- A place or an area where a lot of people live, a place where a lot of business and cultural activity takes place Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary 7th edition, Oxford University Press A convention is not simply a space for looking at or listening to a performance. A successful convention for live performance supports the emotional exchange between the performer and the audience, and between members of audience. Thus conventions are usually general sessions, mostly information giving, often formed around a particular theme or subject matter of topic interest and increasingly accompanied by exhibits. In addition to need for large halls & auditoriums required for the plenary sessions, most conventions break down into smaller groups to deliberate on particular matter of issue. Convention CenterA large civic building or group of buildings designed for conventions, industrial shows, and the like, having large unobstructed exhibit areas and often including conference rooms, hotel accommodations, restaurants, and other facilities. ( A convention center is generally defined as any property used in connection with a convention or meeting center, or similar facility, including auditoriums, exhibition halls, facilities for food preparation and serving, parking facilities, and administrative offices. A number of states have passed legislation enabling public funding to be used for convention centers in an effort to attract tourism and businesses to the local economy. Pukar Bhandari (070/BAE/225) Convention Center Design Studio VI 1.2 COMPONENTS OF THE PROJECT: Exhibition Spaces: In its broadest sense, an exhibition is a display, show or demonstration of something of beauty, value or particular interest to a targeted audience. Exhibition halls should have the space, freedom and flexibility to create an exhibition environment. In any exhibition halls, proper considerations should be given to the movement of people and also to the moving pattern. On the other hand, outdoor exhibition spaces are usually located to immediate vicinity of the exhibition halls. Outdoor exhibition areas can be developed as a flat ground or as an amphitheater. Conference Spaces or Auditorium Halls: Conference halls or Auditoriums are mainly allocated in the exhibition spaces to hold conferences and/or seminar during the exhibition period. Proper attention must be provided in designing entry and exit routes. Multipurpose Halls: Multipurpose Halls can be used for conferences, exhibitions, meetings, symposiums and several other events. Multipurpose Halls can also be used as Banquet and/or Event Halls and sometimes also as Galleries. Other Important spaces of a Convention Center include:  Recreational Spaces.  Gallery.  Restaurants.  Administrative Spaces.  Parking Spaces.  Landscaped Areas. 1.3 MAJOR DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS: 1) Access and Entrance:  Separate access is required for visitors, staff, goods and service vehicles and emergency requirements. It is usually desirable to provide alternative entry for public which is independent from that used by conference visitors. This not only facilitates management and security, but also enables two or congress events or exhibitions to be run independently in parallel.  Easily identifiable entrance and exit, and clear external signage, which may need to be illuminated.  Sufficient unloading/loading space to accommodate multiple events.  Level ground floor with loading docks of sufficient size for all services including client vehicles.  Large coach drops off and collection points adjacent to main entrance, with sufficient turning space and height, accessible under cover.  Doors of sufficient width and height or demountable/retractable walls to permit truck access (trucks delivering exhibit and staging equipment pose particular problems).  Floor loadings to permit truck access.  Easily identifiable and weather protected entrance and reception area for attendees.  Clearly identified disabled access.  In larger venues, security systems and monitoring at loading docks.  Separate entry for venue staff. Pukar Bhandari (070/BAE/225) Convention Center Design Studio VI  Storage space (for several days) for pre-congress consignments including exhibitors’ displays materials. 2) Access for the disabled:  Specific provisions include allocation of parking spaces, identification of routes, provision of ramps, toilets and facilities designed for wheelchair and other disabled users in each main area. 3) Parking:  Coach parking bays off street.  Sufficient undercover parking for attendees.  All parking, including venue staff parking, should be secure.  Direct access to venue lobby.  Clear directions for exiting car park.  Parking requirements for cars and other vehicles will depend on some extent on the proximity and conditions for use of alternative facilities, such as municipal car parks, as well as on the availability of public transport. Typical provisions to allow flexibility in use are: Use Per Car Parking Space Banquet Places 10 Sq. m. Congress Hall Places 10 Sq. m. 4) Service Vehicles:  Plenty of space for parking while unloading/loading goods and equipment with a dedicated car park for vehicles delivering goods or equipment.  Parking for trucks with sufficient height and turning space where staging, audio visual or other equipment needs to be packed in or out within short period of time.  Long-term parking for trucks used for transporting production equipment and exhibitors’ displays. 5) Horizontal and Vertical Arrangements:  The single floor organization provides easy access among the rooms and between the conference areas and other functional elements. This plan imposes few structural or mechanical constraints, permits total freedom in the planning of the rooms, allows for access from the refreshment break areas to outdoor terraces and patios.  Vertical stacking of auditoria and/or main halls is more economical in the use of land, and enables space below tiered floors to be more efficiently used. Unit costs of construction are higher and vertical transportation of people and goods may present difficulties. 6) Circulation:  Linear arrangement of spaces with beginning, middle and end.  A loop where the essentially linear storyline leads naturally back to the beginning.  An arrangement of core and satellites where each theme or detailed treatment of a subject leads back to a central introductory or orientational areas.  A more complex scheme combining linear, loop and core-satellite arrangement of spaces. Pukar Bhandari (070/BAE/225) Convention Center Design Studio VI  Comb which refers to a circulation pattern in which there is a main circulation path and optional alcoves which a visitor may enter or bypass. Actors’ Entry Rehearsal room Technical Room Video Room Stage Preparation Room Stores Recording Room Auditorium Control Room Interpretation Room Press Room Foyer & Circulation Washroom Deliveries Kitchen Conference Organization Entrance Foyer Access Managing Spaces Public Entrance Exhibition Hall Restaurant/ Banquet Hall Possible Separate Public Entry Public Entry Entry FIG: RELATIONSHIP IN A CONFERENCE HALL. 1.4 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND: Convention centers and Exhibition spaces evolved from the open-air amphitheaters of the Greek Agoras and Roman Forums, which were initially intended for large commercial fair. The first convention centers can be traced back to mid-19th century Britain. Commonly known as exhibition halls, the centers were designed to bring together people to discuss and explore their mutual interest of a subject. These imposing Victorian buildings often covered several acres and were multi-functional incorporating lecture halls, libraries, galleries, theatres and exhibition areas. The Crystal Palace, Hyde Park- Pukar Bhandari (070/BAE/225) Convention Center Design Studio VI Among the first historical convention centers constructed was The Crystal Palace in London’s Hyde Park. Providing 92,000 m2 of exhibition space, the building was erected in 1851 to house The Great Exhibition a grand show case of modern industrial technology and design. Organized by Prince Albert and inventor Henry Cole, the Great Exhibition was an international platform for world powers to demonstrate their technological and cultural achievements. Although countries all around the world could contribute, British exhibits - from working machinery to scientific and surgical instruments - took center stage, promoting Britain’s position as a great industrial power. In 1854 the Crystal Palace was dismantled and re-built in Sydenham, an area of south London which by association became known as Crystal Palace. Ravaged by fire in 1936, the building was eventually pulled down. Bingley Hall, BirminghamAnother key convention center in Britain’s history is Bingley Hall, Birmingham. Constructed in 1850 from surplus steels used to build Euston Station, the exhibition hall boasted over an acre of exhibition space and was serviced by ten entrances. Bingley Hall was a primary meeting and exhibition space and before it succumbed to fire in 1984, hosted several key events, including cattle shows, concerts and boxing matches. It was also the center for British Prime Minister Gladstone’s political rally in November 1888. In Bingley Hall’s place now stands Birmingham’s International Convention Centre (ICC). Opened in 1991, the ICC is a major exhibition center comprising ten halls which can accommodate up to 8,000 visitors. The site also houses Symphony Hall, a 2,000 seat concert hall, alongside shops and cafes. Dedicated Conference CentersBorn out of the need for dedicated meeting spaces away from the traditional corporate environment, a new breed of meeting venue has emerged in the last few decades the purpose-built conference center. These multi-functional buildings are designed to maximize attendees’ productivity and concentration by offering a dedicated learning environment in high quality private surroundings. Facilities typically include self-contained conference buildings, break-out rooms, exhibition spaces, dedicated dining rooms and social areas. For added comfort and convenience, today’s purpose-built conference centers usually provide on-site overnight accommodation, leisure facilities and free parking. Lane End Conference Centre was one of the first purpose-built conference centers in the UK. It opened its doors in 1969 and today it boasts five distinct buildings each with a dedicated conference suite, lounge, bar, dining room and a number of dedicated bedrooms for residential events. CONVENTIONS IN NEPAL In our context, the Dabali, Squares, Chowk, etc. was used for the any public functions. Pati, Chautara in Village is even today used for the formal meeting. But these day people are slowly moving towards enclosed space. In present time, different functions like auditorium, conference, seminar, exhibition, library, gallery, etc. take place in certain space with different forms. Pukar Bhandari (070/BAE/225) Convention Center Design Studio VI Convention industry is regarded as an essence of a tourism that makes huge profit. On the aspect of a nation, convention gives economic benefits and also promotes personal exchanges and cultural exchanges. It also gives a chance to get advanced technologies and latest information. Nepal stands popular as an international meeting destination in the world’s business community. Conference halls and top hotels provide excellent meeting facilities at par with international standards, while professional groups that include hotels and tour operators have eased the process of organizing and managing these events. The International Conference Center in Kathmandu is a state-of-the-art convention facility, consisting of numerous halls of different sizes with seating flexibility to cater to various needs. The largest hall can accommodate as many as 1,046 people. Convention centers apart, numerous standard conference facilities have been built into the luxury hotels in Kathmandu and Pokhara. Kathmandu’s connectivity to several cities of Asia and Europe by direct flight makes the mesmerizing capital, with its many attractions, an ideal MICE destination. This gateway to the Himalayan nation offers superb options for work and recreation to go together. Delegates from around the world can enjoy in Nepal a Himalayan holiday even while at work. MICE tourism is the new buzzword in international tourism market and relates to various forms of tourism business concerned with groups of business individuals rather than individual business travelers. MICE stand for: Meetings, Incentives, Conferences and Exhibitions. Nepal is a unique place for MICE tourism because of its natural beauty and extra activities that it has to offer. Meeting, Incentive, Conference and Events are being popular activities of tourism business in Nepal. The world class hotels and resorts are located in various touristic places around Kathmandu valley and Pokhara valley. You can have various options for hotels and location. Either you want to conduct the program in town or outside the town, you will get best venue in luxury hotel and resorts. While you do program outside the city, you will get an opportunity to enjoy with the beauty of nature that offers you extraordinary scenery and landscape. Nepal offers a vast range of hotels, convention centers and conference facilities, from small to big for a perfect selling. Katmandu offers a wide choice of conference centers. Besides the conference facilities at the five star hotels, there are alternatives. Birendra International Convention Center has state-of-the-art facilities for conferences and conventions with sophisticated audio, video, lighting, communications, catering, ventilation and parking facilities. Kathmandu has a number of international class hotels to suit every one’s fancies and finance. Soaltee Holiday Inn Crown Plaza, Hotel Yak & Yeti, Hotel Everest, Hotel Annapurna, Hotel Radisson, Hotel Hyatt, Hotel Shangri-La and Hotel Le Meridian are the five star hotels in Kathmandu. Outside Kathmandu, there are some finest hotels/resorts such as Godavari Village Resort in Godavari (approx. 20 km from Kathmandu) and The Fulbari (one of the finest hotels in South Asia) in Pokhara.    History of MICE in Nepal: MICE is new paradigm of tourism in Nepal, started/highlighted since 1987 after 3rd SAARC summit. Highlighted after cabinet meeting of 2011 in Mt. Everest Base Camp Gradually spread all over Nepal Pukar Bhandari (070/BAE/225) Convention Center Design Studio VI            Lack of TSA, number of tourist arrival for MICE is not accounted but number of conventions are increasing Center of thriving Trans -Himalayan trade for merchants not only exchange goods but also ideas and philosophies Capital Kathmandu legacy as a meeting jaunt with international standard meeting facilities pre and post conference tours Best place for MICE specially travel trade, caucus great location, excellent infrastructure, comprehensive high tech convention facilities and expertise Conference, seminar or special incentive in different scenic splendors and unique blend of cultures in Mountain, Hills and Terai. Why MICE Tourism in Nepal. It is a peaceful and a safe destination. The Nepalese people, as diverse as they are, live in harmony – perhaps fatalistic, perhaps content, but they take on the hardship of life with a smile. Hinduism and Buddhism have co-existed so harmoniously in Nepal for centuries. It is a destination that will fire up the imagination of the delegates. They can have unique pre or post tour programs especially designed to suit the budget and their liking and interests. Cultural and Natural Heritage site, three antique royal cities Kathmandu, Patan and Bhaktapur with old Historical Monuments Different conference centers in Kathmandu city, Birendra International Conference Center(BICC) is a state-of-the-art convention facility, Rastriya Sabha Griha (City Hall), Nepal Academy Hall, National Theater and number of luxurious hotels with meeting halls. Convention centers feature a wide variety of superbly equipped rooms under a single roof also facilities like delegates in reception, theatre, classroom and U-shape style. The gadgets available include public address systems, tiepin microphones, cordless microphones, overhead, slide and multimedia projectors also with TV screens, LED and laser pane boards and laser pointers. DESIGN CONSIDERATION AND GUIDELINES: Exhibition hall The Exhibition Spaces are intended as a combination of indoor and open-air exhibition space in order to create a strong relation between covered and green open spaces through thematic content. The goal is to create an integrated expositive landscape and a Visitor Experience that immediately establishes a positive relationship between humankind and nature, creating a bridge between the content of the Event and the nature of exhibition spaces. The exhibition hall provides optimal conditions for     trade fairs exhibits conventions events and galas An exhibition hall can be   Open-air exhibition space Covered exhibition space Pukar Bhandari (070/BAE/225) Convention Center Design Studio VI OPEN-AIR EXHIBITION SPACE The landscape design shall be developed in keeping with the Theme and with the Participant’s approach to it. Like architecture, the landscape shall also help to tell intriguing stories about the pleasures of the table, delightful scents or strange and curious stories related to food cultivation and processing. The landscape has to document the most advanced research in the field of food production and the transformation of agricultural products. Countries will showcase their capabilities in food production, the biodiversity of their products, and their agricultural and food supply chains. Open spaces A minimum of 30% of each lot must be dedicated to open areas and greenery. Excluding lot setbacks the Open-air Exhibition Space represents around 50% of each lot, where it is possible to build:   Structures used for plants ensuring soil permeability (e.g. trellises, pergolas, garden structures, planters). Landscaping structure (e.g. structures used to retain soil or other materials, pools, exhibition structures, art works). COVERED EXHIBITION SPACE Covered Exhibition Spaces are buildings or enclosed structures containing exhibition areas or other spaces, including all overhanging upper floors or balconies. Participants may decide to build more than one level within the Covered part of the Exhibition Space, based on their individual needs. Height of Buildings • The height of the Covered part of Exhibition Space (or Building Height) must be less than 12 meters. • The height limit for any additional architectural elements (such as skylights, roof elements, vertical connections to the roof, sunscreens, signals, etc.) is 17 meters. Building Setbacks • The setback from the main boulevard must be no less than 10 meters, in order to create a small square. • The distance between buildings and the side street shall be no less than 2 meters; there shall be no building concession directly to squares, greens, streets or public spaces, without the 2 meters’ setback. • The setback from the neighboring lot shall be no less than 3 meters. • The distance between buildings shall comply with fire control requirements. Indoor exhibition and Flow management Pukar Bhandari (070/BAE/225) Convention Center Design Studio VI The indoor exhibition space design has to offer to visitors a full immersion in the Theme on the human scale with content presented at every moment of the visit. The visitor should be guided on a discovery of the exhibition content using the most innovative technology. The challenge lies in getting beyond the outdated paradigm of queues and visitor flows to create an efficient, dynamic and fluid experience. Entrance/Exit - Queue Management In order to enhance visitor ease and reduce queuing, the Organizer will set up a virtual queuing system to improve Level of Service (LOS) by reducing waiting time and optimizing the waiting areas of other uses. Building entrances and exits shall be designed taking into account the surrounding conditions and landscaping requirements.  Exhibition spaces may have multiple entrances/exits on different sides of the lot. They must provide differentiated access for visitors, including disabled, special reserved visitors, reserved groups, workers and finally supplies/waste.  If a main entrance for the Exhibition Space is planned, it cannot give onto the Decumanus. This side of the lot may only have exits. The queuing area must not occupy or overflow onto the Decumanus. Goods entrance and waste removal are planned during the event closing hours and could be done by using all pedestrian access except the Decumanus area. General guidelines for planning all sorts of exhibitions can be summed up as:  Visitors should be correctly oriented inside the exhibition area.  Viewers should be able to move through the exhibit without being forced to walk past objects they have already seen.  Adequate space should be provided for visitors to move at different speeds. The circulation space should also allow the visitor to take a quick look at the exhibits so that they can decide which ones to examine in detail.  A viewer tends to turn clockwise upon entering the exhibit area. Circulation pattern should be designed with this in mind. AUDITORIUM The auditorium is the heart of building, where the primary activity of experiencing and presenting performances take place. Audience seating is arranged to view the stage and the stage is a platform from which the performer can be communicate to the audience. The relationship between the two is very crucial for the success of convention centers. Mostly auditorium is designed to fulfill no of purposes. The objective of designer will be to use 100% usage of space. Auditorium should be designed in such a way that every member should be able to see and hear the performance of stage. Pukar Bhandari (070/BAE/225) Convention Center Design Studio VI General Design Criteria of Auditorium 1. Form/shape Shape corrects the defects of sound in auditorium hall i.e. echo’s, excessive reverberation, sound foci’s, dead spots etc. fan shape 3.6m from the stage. The alternate seating plan can enhance the visibility. Mostly different size of seating (Size difference of 2”) is provided to maintain the alternating seating which is not noticed by patron. Seating Capacity          minimum Dimension of seating with arms =500mm Without arms =450mm Seat height = 430-450 mm Angle of inclination= 7-9 degree with horizontal Back Height = 800-850mm Angle of inclination = 15-20 degree Seat Depth= 600-720 mm, reduced to 425-500mm when the seat is tipped Other Factors affecting seating is, Acoustics: Upholstery to satisfy the acoustic requirements, usually the level of absorbency when unoccupied Ventilation & heating: Air supply or extract under a seat Pukar Bhandari (070/BAE/225) Convention Center Design Studio VI  Upholstery: Thickness of padding should provide comfort & avoid fatigue, material of padding and finish must satisfy fire regulations Sightlines Horizontal Sightlines It is obtained from spectator’s psychological perception & viewing angle.  Good view without head movement= 30 degree  Good view with head movement = 60 degree  Maximum perception angle = 110 degree  With full head & shoulder movement= 360 degree  So, fan shape less than 100 degree is preferable due to Sightlines & Acoustic reason in Auditorium. Vertical Sightlines The longitudinal section is a parabolic stepped floor as a theoretical rake produced by the sightline calculation. This gives every member of the audience similar viewing conditions. This may be reduced to a single angle or series of angles when applied as described the rake will also be steep. Pukar Bhandari (070/BAE/225) Convention Center Design Studio VI This is satisfactory for a single tier of seating with no balconies and is especially appropriate for open-stage formats. Wheelchair location Regulations require a minimum of six places for wheelchair users, or 1/100th of the audience capacity, whichever if the greater. Their location as discrete areas can be at the rear, front, side or within the seating; Wheelchairs can be centrally positioned by forming a bay off a cross-gangway. Pukar Bhandari (070/BAE/225) Convention Center Design Studio VI A wheelchair user should be able to sit with a party of friends not in wheelchairs, Sightlines from the wheelchair should be checked, as should the sightlines of those audience members behind. Some wheelchair users can transfer into auditorium seats. Fly tower Where there is a space dedicated for use as a stage, then it is essential to provide this with means of suspension overhead. This suspension to be used for both scenic and lighting instruments. The grid above the stage from where the suspensions come should provide clear walking space above the personnel to move about over the floor area. The received wisdom is to place the pulleys supporting the suspension bridge at high points. Changing Room requirements       It should have discrete access Be equipped with secure hanging space Have mirrors with good lighting over vanity tables Have separate toilets & showers Have audio/video feed from performance areas Be equipped with phones and power outlets Rehearsal Rooms    Enclosed space without natural light close to the dressing room Sound system, Lighting There should be at least one stage for the rehearsal of performances Storage room  20-25% of playing area Pukar Bhandari (070/BAE/225) Convention Center Design Studio VI Workshops for making scenery   Should be exclude from main hall due to fire & limited space options 4-5 times the area of main stage Technical utilities      Transformer room Medium & low voltage switch room Power batteries HVAC plants Fire sprinkler system Cloakrooms  Minimum 4m2 per 100 people RESTAURANTS AND FOOD COURTS        Should be planned to achieve variety of seating arrangements. Provide acoustic lobby between restaurant and kitchen. Access should be planned for guest. The service aisle should not be less than 0.9-1.35m if it is to be used by both trolleys and guest. Waiter station should be located so as not to disturb guest. Ambience is an important factor in restaurant design: decoration, lighting should be an integral part. Large regular space should be broken up General Functional Layout of Restaurants: Pukar Bhandari (070/BAE/225) Convention Center Design Studio VI Spatial Requirements: Functional areas Receiving Food storage Preparation Cooking Baking Ware washing Traffic aisles Trash storage Employee facilities Miscellaneous Space allowed (%) 5 20 14 8 10 5 16 5 16 2 Area Required:    Per seat 1.5 – 2.15 sq. m. Ratio of service area to total area 25-50% Net kitchen area 15-25% Aisle Width:    Main – min. 2.00m wide Intermediate – min. 0.9m wide Side – min. 1.2m wide Ceiling height of Dining room with respect to Floor area: ≤50 sq. m. >50 sq. m. >100 sq. m. Above or below galleries Receiving Area:   2.5m 2.75m 3.00m ≥2.5m The main variables affecting the amount of space needed for the receiving functions are the number, type and type of the deliveries that are to be handled at one time. Ease of opening, checking, moving and stack ability all have a bearing on the space are required. Serving Areas:  Serving areas for most table facilities are planned as a part of the main cooking area and separate space determination are not usually needed. Pukar Bhandari (070/BAE/225) Convention Center Design Studio VI Dining Areas:   Calculating the space requirements for dining areas can be difficult because of the many choices available. For example, the final space for the dining space is dependent upon the following variables: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Types of seating to be provided Tables sizes desired Table shapes desired Pattern of table arrangements Number of service stations needed Walkaway Width Toilet Facilities Table Arrangement: Pukar Bhandari (070/BAE/225) Convention Center Design Studio VI Typical Size & Shape of Dining Tables: Factors for Restaurant Planning:       The exterior appearance should communicate clearly, with signs, lighting and many displays. From outside, people should be able to view the interior seating, style and features. Each type of restaurant needs a different identity. Ambience is an important factor in restaurant design. Large regular spaces should be broken up into smaller, more important areas, if necessary by screens or decorative features. Changes of levels are usually favored by caterers but are acceptable provided they make a positive contribution to design, do not involve more than two or three steps, and the main part of the restaurant is on the same level as the kitchen. Raised seating areas should be protected by balustrades. The cash desk may be at the entrance, by service doors or within the kitchen area, depending on the management system. Food Courts:     Large halls that house groups of small outlets selling a wide variety of specialist food productions. With attractive displays and a market –style environment, food courts offers a pleasant shopping environment and can be added to supermarkets beyond the check-outs. Storage space for one day’s trade. A bakery, a butcher, cafes & bars, ice cream parlor plus shops etc. Pukar Bhandari (070/BAE/225) Convention Center Design Studio VI Shopping Malls A Shopping center is a complex of retail stores and related facilities planned as a unified group to give maximum shopping convenience to the customers and maximum exposure to the merchandise. General characteristics of a Shopping Mall:     The mall usually consists of the principal mall, the major pedestrian shopping street of the project, and one or more subsidiary approach malls or access routes connecting the main mall with the parking areas or adjacent streets. With few exceptions, all stores have their principle entrance on the main mall or, less desirably, on approach malls, whether or not these stores have additional entrances to parking lots or adjacent streets. The main mall can be on one level or on two or more superimposed levels. Each mall level should, however, avoid slopes or steps within its own walkways to avoid hindrance to shopping and a source of accidents. The mall can be:  Open, with weather protection consisting solely of continuous canopies along the store fronts,  Completely covered but open to the air, or  Completely enclosed, necessitating heating in winter and air-conditioning in summer. General Design Criteria:          Column Spacing: One of the significant dimensions in designing a mall is the width of the frontages of stores. The common widths are 20, 25, 30 ft. with the last the most flexible. Store Depths: The stores with depth of 120,140 ft. are commonly used while sometimes the store widths are increased to accommodate larger depths. In the case of basements, the depths are reduced by 20 to 25 percent. Clear Heights: The clear heights vary from 10 to 14 ft. or more with 12ft as an average height. The height should be adequate for air-conditioning ducts, recessed lights, and structural system. Ducts & Shafts: While dealing with the ducts and shafts, mechanical engineers are set up to schedule the location and sizes of the principal ducts and shafts to avoid serious future space problems. Roof Equipment Concealment: Mechanical supports from the engineers are set up for the provision of properly designed and located roof screens and enclosures. Exterior Walls: Depending upon the store’s requirements, service doors, public entrance doors, trash rooms, show windows and other modular designs are suitably accommodated for functionality without disturbing the visual effect. Traffic: The car capacity of road ways must be sufficient to accommodate the traffic generated by the shopping center. Proper signal controls, reservoir lanes, divider strips and other traffic control features must be provided. Parking: Adequate parking spaces should be provided as required. Visibility: Visual communication should be maintained through the use of open wells and shop fronts. Pukar Bhandari (070/BAE/225) Convention Center Design Studio VI  Vertical Transportation: Comfortable and accessible transporters such as escalators, elevators and staircases should be provided as requirement to avoid congestion. Service Entry/Exits:   Servicing involves the delivery of goods to the various stores and also the removal of thrash and garbage. In the simple strip center, the servicing is customarily by an alley in the rear of the strip of stores. It is desirable to conceal the alley from adjacent neighborhood areas by a wall or landscaping. In the one-level regional suburban center, servicing is customarily by one of the following:  Underground Service tunnels: Usually under the mall, connecting directly to the tenant leased basements.  Service Courts: On the periphery of the building complex, usually partially shielded by 6 10’ masonry walls.  Over-the-curb & Sidewalks: Service trucking routes on the site are often separated from customer routes. These usually connect to fireproof passages at the rear of the stores. Mezzanines are occasionally used to provide storage and non-selling space. HVAC & Mechanical Services:     Controls ensure occupant comfort, provide safe operation of the equipment, and in a modern HVAC control system enable judicious use of energy resources. Sanitary and Electrical Duct must be provided at necessary yet convenient spaces. A mechanical control room is placed on top of every lift shaft to contain the counter weight, pulleys and other mechanical systems. An electrical control room is provided usually in the basement to control the regular power supply and backup power supply systems. Outdoor Plaza:    Outdoor public space free from vehicular movement. Public activities like strolling, sitting, eating, entertaining, passing leisure time, social interaction and watching the world go by. Quality of plaza determined by livability and social interactions. Atrium:     Usually for natural lighting and aesthetics. Can also be designed to enhance buildings cooling system by the help of stack effect. Circulation space arranged around atrium space. Atrium also gives visual connection displays and shops on different levels thus establishing as a common feature of commercial complex. Pukar Bhandari (070/BAE/225) Convention Center Design Studio VI PARKING General Design Considerations:        The parking spaces acts as a place for the ceremonies of Arrival & Departure. The basic requirements for parking spaces should be taken from the vehicle dimensions whilst driving in a linear path, cornering and entering into and driving out of the parking area. Parking can be done in various ways: inclined with various angles or perpendicular. Parking can also be done in basement or on surface outside the complex. Surface parking requires less space than the basement parking due to absence of columns. In case of basement parking, there should be enough provision to be economical in this view but for highly commercialized areas where the land value is very high, this can be feasible. In case of basement parking, a relatively narrow column grid pattern can be used, with careful planning and design, reduce building cost and height without any loss of function. Typical Vehicular Dimensions: Typical Parking Layouts: Pukar Bhandari (070/BAE/225) Convention Center Design Studio VI Car Orientation: Parking at 90° to access lanes Parking at 45° to access lanes Ramps for Basement Parking:  For each car ramp, the run must be more than 5m long, with ramps that can be up to 12% gradient. Automobile Dimensions & Turning Radius: Turning Circle Radius Car Dimensions & Turning Radius Pukar Bhandari (070/BAE/225) Convention Center Design Studio VI CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY 1. Modular grids/Structural grids: Structural grids are kept as large as practicable. For light-weight roofs with internal heights of 12 meter to 15 meter or more, as required for large exhibition halls, column spacing of 30 meter across the together with perimeter wall columns at 15 meter centres are often adopted. The trusses spanning the bays are usually N- or V-braced, box sections serving also as walkways to give access to overhead services. In larger halls space frames are also used. Smaller halls are based on a 10 to 15-meter structural grid. The location of columns has a considerable influence on booth layout and hence on circulation planning and utility service grids. 2. Wall Construction: The lower areas of walls should be resistant to scarping and in vulnerable places, like external corner, corridors and entrances to goods doors or services elevators, extra protection by covers or fenders is required. Other requirements are concerned with combustibility and-where fire division is involved –the period of fire resistance. It is also important to consider alternative uses to which the hall may be put. For meeting a sound diffusive surface will invariably be necessary to echoes and air resonance from cross reflections. 3. Ceilings: As a rule, the ceilings of exhibition halls are left open for economy and to allow access to ceiling mounted equipment. In the case of a hall providing a clear height of 5m (16ft) or more, the view of the roof structure and associated engineering equipment is above 35 degrees from eye level over most of the floor and the visual intrusion will be minimal. If necessary, this can be further camouflaged by: • • • • • • • • • • • Mounting lighting battens and other terminal equipment in the same horizontal plane so that the spaces above are screened. Selecting luminaries which provide a controlled distribution of light below this place. Having a uniform matt dark (black, gray, brown) color of high chrome in the ceiling void For halls of lower height, a formed ceiling construction is usually desirable, particularly if hall is to serve for other purposes. The ceiling must be paneled to allow access to the equipment above and to satisfy other criteria: Easy access, without damaging the panels. Easy-to-clean, permanent surfaces for wiping off hand marks. Robust to withstand handling. Incombustible or very low rate of surface flame speed (class 0 to 1). Modular with luminaries, air diffusers, loudspeakers, sprinkler systems etc. Sound absorbency, depending upon the multiple use of hall. Aesthetic acceptability for the use as a banquet hall or congress hall. Pukar Bhandari (070/BAE/225) Convention Center Design Studio VI 4. Roof Construction: Exhibition halls are usually clear wide span structures. So in case of roof construction it makes some complication with its large spanning property. So the construction technology for the roof is selected according to the requirement of the building. There are different technologies by which one can build the structure. In country like Nepal, concrete technology is widely used for the different type of structures. It gives flexibility of the shape but giving some restriction to the spanning size. There are other technology using steel and glass. This technology gives the flexibility to the design as well as span. Today the world is using this technology in a very wide range for constructing building like conference centers, exhibition centers, auditorium, concert halls, etc. LONG-SPAN STRUCTURE A question can always be aroused that “how long is long span for buildings?” The answer to this question is that the structure with span larger than 20m is called a long span structure. This type of span is unable to be achieved by ordinary RCC structure. Long span or complicated structures can be constructed used different construction technologies. There are different types of structure which should be constructed using the appropriate methods. They are mentioned as below: I. Flexible and non-rigid elements: These types of structures can be constructed using three different methods. They can be constructed in the form of arches, cables and tents. The height of arch in this case can rise with the span of the structure, while the tents are high tensioned structures and are made from special textile. These can cover up to 100m span. II. Flexible but Rigid Elements: These types of structures can be constructed using three different methods. They can be constructed in the form of shell, plates and domes. Shells structures can be made if the ratio of the thickness to the span is 2.4” to 100”. It can be constructed using RC, plastic, glass, metal, ply etc. III. Rigid, Solid and Linear Elements: These types of structures can be constructed using three different methods. They can be constructed in the form of beam frame and slab. IV. Trusses: Truss is very much in use these days. Different kinds of trusses are used to cover different types of structure and of different spans. The large span buildings can be constructed using flat, curved or space truss. Analysis of Long Span Structure Long span roof is today widely applied for sport, social, industrial, ecological and other activities. The experience collected in last decades identified structural typologies as space structures, cable structures, membrane structures and new - under tension efficient materials which combination deals with lightweight structural systems, as the state of art on long span structural design. Pukar Bhandari (070/BAE/225) Convention Center Design Studio VI Long span structures are today widely applied mainly for sport buildings as: - Stadia - Sport halls - Olympic swimming pools - Ice tracks and skating rinks - Indoor athletics Space structures - Single layer grids - Double and multi-layer grids - Single and double curvature space frame Cable structures - cable stayed roofs - suspended roofs - cable trusses - single and multilayer nets Reflected 73% Outside 7% SUN Absorbed 14% Membrane structures - pre-stressed anticlastic membranes - pneumatic membranes Convertible roofs - overlapping sliding system - pivoted system - folding system Transmitted 13% Re- radiated Inside 7% Sheer fill fabric Nowadays a new kind of materials is being used in large structures in place of the conventional material that is glass. This material is called the Sheer Fill membranes. Features of sheer fill membranes are:       Provides aesthetics and performance benefits to glass glazing Diffusion of light through it eliminating glare. Weather and fire resistant. The material is flexible, high tensile strength thus it is elastic. Display illumination broadly to the space below. This material is immune to Ultra Violet radiation. Pukar Bhandari (070/BAE/225) Convention Center Design Studio VI CASE STUDIES International Convention Center, Baneswor Location: New Baneswor, Kathmandu Design & Aid: People republic of China Style: Neo Traditional Plot Area: 7.75 hectares Built up area: 12573 (16%) Capacity: 1004 Seats main Conference hall, 250 seats medium sized assembly hall, Four smaller meeting rooms suitable for 100 and 50 delegates, 480 sq. m. Multifunction hall. Exhibition hall with 308 sq. m. floor area. Selection Criteria   Similar function Spatial relationship & Design approach Study Auditorium and conference halls design Surrounding context The complex is located in commercial area. It is close to the international airport on the east and is nearer to the Everest hotel on the west. Its location is prime importance being in center of city. Access and parking ICC premises can be accessed through three gates. The main gate is in the south and is controlled automatically. The two gates in the west side, one for the use of logistic personnel and transportation vehicle in and out and the other is mainly for the use of business complex of the ICC i.e. provision of separate pedestrian and vehicular entry from the western road as well. The parking area is designated on both the left and right side of the convention building. The area is big enough to accommodate 400 cars. Pukar Bhandari (070/BAE/225) Convention Center Design Studio VI Functional analysis The entrance hall in ICC is very grand and fascinating to the visitors. It is 30m wide, 18m long and 10m high. It contains various halls as following Sagarmatha Hall - 1004 main conference hall Nuptse Hall - 250 seats medium sized assembly hall Four smaller meeting rooms respectively suitable for 100 and 50 delegates Lohtse - 480 sq. m multifunction hall Kailash - grand exhibition hall named with 308 sq. m floor area. The axis is well defined. The main entrance to building lies on the same axis as that of southern entrance. The main building mainly comprises of three parts:  Entrance hall and auditorium in the middle  Medium sized hall, meeting rooms and VIP chamber on the east  Multipurpose hall on the west. Entrance Hall Pukar Bhandari (070/BAE/225) Convention Center Design Studio VI It is double height grand entrance foyers which also serve as an exhibition space during several functions and also act as spill out area for the auditorium. The ICC entrance hall leads to the auditorium, from its right goes to the medium sized hall and small meeting hall whereas its left side lays the multifunctional hall. There are two grand staircases on the entrance foyer that leads to the gallery. The lounge and hosting halls for VIP are at the back of the conference section, connected with the large and small conference halls and stage respectively, having their own entrance, exit and car park. SAGARMATHA HALL (MAIN CONVENTION HALL) The auditorium with 1201 sq. m of floor area and 484 sq. m of stage area holds 1004 seats. In the front there were 360 seats for representatives and in the back there were 166 seats for observers. 478 seats in the gallery are for journalists and publics. This Sagarmatha hall was mainly served for international conferences, theatrical performance and movies. It was equipped with simultaneous interpretation system in 6 languages. The auditorium is flanked with lounges and other facilities such as bank, post office, bar, small shop and phone booth. But now it is modified as Constitution Assembly hall after 2007 of constitution assembly. Floor area = 1201 m2  Stage area = 484 m2 Seating  Seat width = 0.6m  End aisle width = 2.1m  Central aisle width = 1.2m  In balcony  Tread width = 0.85m  Riser height = 0.35m  Gangway width = 1.5m  Exit doors width = 1.4m Facilities  Projection room = 32 sq. m  Sound control room = 36 sq. m  Light control room = 15 sq. m  Interpretation booth = 6 sq. m Pukar Bhandari (070/BAE/225) Convention Center Design Studio VI Toilets Acoustic treatments  Carpeted floor on the gangways and parquet on the seating areas  A combination of wooden boards, glass wool and wire mesh on the walls  Undulating ceiling with reflective surface  Sound proof doors used for sound insulation  AC ducts on the walls of auditorium acting as air cavity for sound insulation  Projector room, sound control room and interpretation room as the buffer space for noise insulations  LOSTSE HALL With an area of 480 square meters the multi-function hall can be served for medium sized conference, exhibition, theatrical performance and dance party. It also provides 450 seats in the chair arrangement. It has access to open landscaped court i.e. rock garden. Large windows on north and south admit sufficient natural light. An outstanding ceiling design with decorative lighting fixtures NUPTSE, GAURI, SHANKAR, KOSHI AND GANDAKI The medium sized hall (Nuptse) is specialized in medium sized conference with 250 fixed seats of table and chair designed to suit more intimate conference or seminars. ICC has two 100 seated halls (Gauri and Shankar) and two 50 seated halls (Koshi and Gandaki). The floor area being 190 sq. m and 105 sq .m respectively. Both rooms can be separated in half by movable partitions. All these rooms are installed with movable tables and chairs. Exhibition hall  On the second floor is the exhibition hall with an area of 308 sq.m. where different kind of exhibition can be held.  The hall is facilitated with sufficient day lighting with the large windows n all the three sides and the height of the hall is about 14’  The exhibition hall is large enough and is not obstructed by the columns during exhibition or other trade shows  Also the gallery space which is 4m wide and the entrance foyer on the ground floor is used during exhibition  The office area on the first floor lies in the eastern wing. The central foyer of the office area is open to the sky with pergolas on the top which gives enough light and this space also act as interaction space Pukar Bhandari (070/BAE/225) Convention Center Design Studio VI Circulation Main entrance lies on the southern part and the main entrance of the building lies on the same axis.  Circulation corridor: 6m  Service corridor: 2m separate service entrance from the west leading to the pantry area of the multi-function hall  Service staircase each 1m wide is provided separately for the auditorium and multifunctional hall Space Analysis The analysis of different space is as follows: Capacity Area(m2) Per area(m2) 540 0.5 1685 1.6 480 1.9 S. N Description 1. Entrance foyer 2. Auditorium 3. Multifunctional hall 4. Medium sized hall 250 5. Seminar hall 100 190 1.9 6. Seminar hall 50 105 2.01 7. Exhibition hall 1004 person 2.1 308 Services  ICC has full frame of supporting facilities that include security, utilities communications and the others  The affiliated construction include substation, freezing plant, boiler house, underground fuel depot, water treatment plant, water storage pool, pump house, water tower, guard house and toilets  Fire alarm system consisting of photoelectric smoke detectors, manual call point, hydrant lines, water sprinkler, fire extinguisher, fire rolling shutter, emergency announcement system and well trained technicians  Electricity supply by two city power transmission lines and 250 KW diesel generators for backup  Two distinct central air conditioning systems for summer and winter seasons. Consist of chiller plant and boiler plant  A pantry is fully equipped with ice- machine, electric heater, table ware sterilizer, and washing machine and coffee maker facilities for small banquets, cold drinks and snacks, coffee-making and so on Pukar Bhandari (070/BAE/225) Convention Center Design Studio VI Construction and Technology The roof of the auditorium, medium sized hall, the multi-purpose hall and the communal are constructed with steel truss structure bolted together by the method of ball- type junctions. The foundation of the main building and the affiliated works of BICC consist of 1065 reinforced concrete piles built in place and 762 aggregate driven piles Architectural expression Style  Blend of traditional style and modern style. Traditional style roofing laid in perfect symmetry with black colored glass. Form and proportion  The form of the building is symmetric along the axis of entry  Rectangular form, huge massing, courtyard planning and use of symmetry  Use of vertical stripes on the façade, for creating the effect of verticality, since building View showing architectural style of the complex height is less compared to the length.  Design of gates and the other smaller building resembles to the architecture of the main building. Elements of visual communication  Symmetrical elevation  A huge fountain of 24m diameter on the front act as a focal point at the entrance  Use of 81 flagpoles each of 15m in front of fountain also act as element of visual communication Design Inferences Zoning Functional Requirements & Spatial Planning Convention Planning Pukar Bhandari (070/BAE/225) Convention Center Design Studio VI Rastriya Nach Ghar:             National Theatre cum commercial complex Architect- IECS Land Area= 5-2-0-0 Capacity= 750 Front part= commercial Inner Part= Theatre Basement-parking, electrical, mechanical room GF- Shopping and green space 1F- Hall & Foyer 2F- Balcony hall & office 3F- Office Top floor- technical space (above ceiling) Selection Criteria To study auditorium requirements Planning Auditorium away from noisy road  Foyer as buffer Space  Construction technology: frame structure, cavity wall & multilayer roof with metal truss  Arch style: Neo traditional, Exposed Brick, slope roof tile  Material Brick, Tile, RCC, CGI sheet, Parquet, Vinyl tile, Velvet curtain, bamboo ply, teak ply, planks, acoustic ceiling, POP  Construction period 2059-2062  Space Organization in Theatre  3 Parts  Entrance, ticket counter, foyer, etc.  Auditorium  Pukar Bhandari (070/BAE/225) Convention Center Design Studio VI  Stage: Front stage, back stage, wings, green room, rehearsal room Other Spaces       Technical spaces Projection room WC Stair, ramp, lift Open courtyard (Dabali) Gallery Circulation in theatre     Wall section used in Nach Ghar Pedestrian entrance, Vehicle entrance, VIP entrance Ticket Counter in entrance Exit directly to open air & fire Escape metal stair from Hall Foyer with WC, smoking area, waiting seats, etc. Acoustic Design for Auditorium Hall Shape & Size Main Hall with 600 seats Balcony with 150 seats Approx. maximum length is 24m with Orchestra pit The shape is such that view and audibility is better Cyclorama- flex Screen on the back of stage Projection room back of balcony The length of the hall = 24m approx. The breadth of the hall = 19m The height of the hall =10.82m The shape of hall is fan shape

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