What's Your Question?

What Is a Case Study?

When you’re performing research as part of your job or for a school assignment, you’ll probably come across case studies that help you to learn more about the topic at hand. But what is a case study and why are they helpful? Read on to learn all about case studies.

Deep Dive into a Topic

At face value, a case study is a deep dive into a topic. Case studies can be found in many fields, particularly across the social sciences and medicine. When you conduct a case study, you create a body of research based on an inquiry and related data from analysis of a group, individual or controlled research environment.

As a researcher, you can benefit from the analysis of case studies similar to inquiries you’re currently studying. Researchers often rely on case studies to answer questions that basic information and standard diagnostics cannot address.

Study a Pattern

One of the main objectives of a case study is to find a pattern that answers whatever the initial inquiry seeks to find. This might be a question about why college students are prone to certain eating habits or what mental health problems afflict house fire survivors. The researcher then collects data, either through observation or data research, and starts connecting the dots to find underlying behaviors or impacts of the sample group’s behavior.

Gather Evidence

During the study period, the researcher gathers evidence to back the observed patterns and future claims that’ll be derived from the data. Since case studies are usually presented in the professional environment, it’s not enough to simply have a theory and observational notes to back up a claim. Instead, the researcher must provide evidence to support the body of study and the resulting conclusions.

Present Findings

As the study progresses, the researcher develops a solid case to present to peers or a governing body. Case study presentation is important because it legitimizes the body of research and opens the findings to a broader analysis that may end up drawing a conclusion that’s more true to the data than what one or two researchers might establish. The presentation might be formal or casual, depending on the case study itself.

Draw Conclusions

Once the body of research is established, it’s time to draw conclusions from the case study. As with all social sciences studies, conclusions from one researcher shouldn’t necessarily be taken as gospel, but they’re helpful for advancing the body of knowledge in a given field. For that purpose, they’re an invaluable way of gathering new material and presenting ideas that others in the field can learn from and expand upon.


case studies for human geography

The Center for Middle Eastern Studies (CMES)

The Center for Middle Eastern Studies (CMES)

Search form, ap human geography: case studies - morocco, content area: , subject / country: , grade level: , author: , lesson plan: .

PDF icon

Quick Links

Internet Geography

Geography Case Studies

All of our geography case studies in one place

Coastal Erosion

Use the images below to find out more about each case study.

The Holderness Coast

Case Study

The Dorset Coast


Coastal Management

Sandscaping at Bacton, Norfolk

Coastal Realignment Donna Nook

Coastal Realignment Medmerry

Coastal Deposition

Spurn Point

Blakeney Point Spit


Amatrice Earthquake Case Study

Chile Earthquake 2010

Christchurch Earthquake

Haiti Earthquake

Japan Earthquake 2011

L’Aquila Earthquake

Lombok Indonesia Earthquake 2018

Nepal Earthquake 2015

Sulawesi, Indonesia Earthquake and Tsunami 2018

Malaysia Causes of Deforestation

Malaysia Impacts of Deforestation

Alaska Case Study

Epping Forest Case Study

Sahara Desert Case Study

Svalbard Case Study

Thar Desert Case Study

Western Desert Case Study

Extreme Weather in the UK

Beast from the East Case Study

Storm Ciera Case Study

Food Resources

Almería, Spain: a large-scale agricultural development

Sustainable food supplies in an LIC – Bangladesh

Landforms on the River Tees

Landforms on the River Severn

River Flooding

Boscastle Floods

Kerala Flood 2018

Wainfleet Floods 2019

The Somerset Levels Flood Case Study

UK Floods Case Study November 2019

The Changing Economic World

How can the growth of tourism reduce the development gap? Jamaica Case Study

How can the growth of tourism reduce the development gap? Tunisia Case Study

India Case Study of Development

Tropical Storms

Beast from the East

Hurricane Andrew

Cyclone Eline

Cyclone Idai Case Study

Typhoon Haiyan 2013

Hurricane Irma 2017

Typhoon Jebi 2018

Hurricane Florence 2018

Typhoon Mangkhut 2018

Urban Issues

Urban Growth in Brazil – Rio de Janeiro

Urban Growth in India – Mumbai

Urban Growth in Nigeria – Lagos

What is the location and importance of London?

Inner City Redevelopment – London Docklands

Sustainable Urban Living – Freiburg

Sustainable Urban Living – East Village

Sustainable Urban Transport Bristol Case Study

Volcanic Eruptions

Eyjafjallajokull – 2010

Mount Merapi – 2010

Mount Pinatubo – 1991

Sakurajima Case Study

Nyiragongo Case Study

Water Resources

Hitosa, Ethiopia – A local water supply scheme in an LIC

The South-North Water Transfer Project, China

Share this:

Please Support Internet Geography

If you've found the resources on this site useful please consider making a secure donation via PayPal to support the development of the site. The site is self-funded and your support is really appreciated.

Search Internet Geography

Top posts and pages.

The Willow Project

Latest Blog Entries

A road and oil pipeline on Alaska's North Slope

Pin It on Pinterest

Using the Case Study Approach to Teach Human Geography

Case studies are useful not only in research, but also in classroom instruction in human geography . One of the many strengths of this type of teaching and learning is that it is one of the most effective ways to link research and teaching in geography classrooms at all levels of instruction. During the past decade, a spate of books and articles in geographic education journals have documented some of the many ways case studies can be useful in helping students understand and apply the geographic perspective. Using case studies as an instructional method encompasses many different types of interactive learning and thus encourages educators to move away from a teacher centered classroom to creation and nurturing of a student centered learning environment.

Scholars and educational practitioners have long argued for the benefits of interactive pedagogies that encourage students to become active contributors to the learning process. This approach moves geography faculty and classroom teachers away from traditional lecture approaches to instruction toward interactive and collaborative learning. Numerous prior studies have established that student knowledge and skills mastery are retained longer when they are encouraged to become active participants in the learning process. Long term assessments of learning outcomes have also ascertained that the majority of students improve their content knowledge, skills mastery, and affective and attitudinal learning in classrooms that are more student centered.

Use of the case study approach to teaching human geography requires students to actively engage with course content by reading, analyzing, comparing, and critiquing a set of cases that are issues based and often link local to global scales of learning. This way of teaching differs dramatically from the more traditional use of cases as supplementary reading assignments to illustrate key points in economic, cultural, or even physical geography lectures. The case studymethod instead refers to an approach that is grounded in an overarching educational practice with the primary objective of active, centered learning. In this approach, students are asked to become members of a collaborative group of learners whose task is to explore, analyze, synthesize, and potentially criticize specific case studies framed by real world issues. Case study materials useful in human geography instruction can come from book chapters, academic and popular articles, newspaper articles or other documents, and the teacher's own experiences.

Perhaps most importantly, this highly collaborative pedagogical approach provides faculty with the opportunity to embed their own research into classroom learning. The use of data gathered on site in the field doing case study research is only one way to integrate research into classroom instruction. Students can also be asked to conduct their own research projects modeled after the work of faculty or classroom teachers that includes development and refinement of research questions, discussion of appropriate research methods to be used for the study, practice in using various types of data compilation and data analysis, and writing up and then defending the final outcomes of the project in oral presentations. All of these methods are best conducted using local or regional case studies that can be scaled up to larger geographic questions under discussion in coursework in geography.

One of the new sites of case study teaching and learning now underway in US classrooms is occurring in advanced placement human geography courses all across the nation. With the support of ample supplies of published and online curricular materials developed especially for novice and experienced classroom teachers expanding exponentially as the number of students in these advanced secondary level classrooms expands each year, the use of case studies as a preferred approach continues to gain credibility. High school students (along with many of their teachers) often enter their first high level geography classroom unaware of even the most basic content, skills, and perspectives of human geography. Using case studies that illustrate issues, places, and spaces at a variety of scales helps deepen their understanding of core concepts and skills and also increases teacher and student confidence in applying the geographic perspective in geography classes and beyond.

The use of the case study approach in educational settings also provides a discussion forum for deconstructing and rethinking some of the ways the world is changing. The study of geography, as well as teaching and learning itself, are contested spaces of change where fluidity is the norm. However, despite this ongoing climate of rapid change, many of the now outdated concepts in our field are the norm in geography classrooms in many parts of the world. The use of case studies can help expand these now outdated approaches and content to enliven students' interest and engage them in their own learning.

Please enable JavaScript.

Coggle requires JavaScript to display documents.

Geography case studies (Human Geography (Curitiba (The BRT runs on a…

Resource Library | Activity : 1 hr

Resource library activity : 1 hr, present research on human geography and borders.

Students use the jigsaw cooperative learning strategy to discuss and present research on four case studies of conflicts due to human geography in Europe. Then they make generalizations about cultural and human features and their impact on country borders in a whole-class discussion.

Geography, Human Geography

Folk Dancers at the National Basque Festival

Dancing is a major Basque recreational activity.

Photograph by Walter Meayers Edwards

<resource_carousel.datastructures.RCItem object at 0x7ff0d768b898>

1. Have students use the jigsaw cooperative learning strategy to discuss their case studies.

Have students regroup in their small groups from Lesson 8, Activity 1 and make sure they have their completed worksheets from that activity. Remind students they are in their "expert" groups. They have studied one case study in depth. Regroup students so that each new group of four has at least one member from each expert group. Have each expert in a group report on their case study. Other students learn from the experts and complete their worksheets.

2. Have groups present their findings.

Have each group present their case study to the class by reading aloud the scenario and explaining the answers they arrived at while conducting their research.

3. Make generalizations about the impacts of cultural features on country borders.

Hold a whole-class discussion about cultural features and their impact on country border s using the questions below as prompts. Encourage students to cite their research projects or other specific examples to support their answers.

Informal Assessment

Check for student understanding by observing their presentations and jigsaw and whole-class discussion contributions. Evaluate how well students are able to integrate small-group research findings into the whole-class discussion.

Extending the Learning

Have students research cultural features in their own region or state and present their findings. Provide students with the following questions to research: What cultural groups are important in your area? How do the groups impact state, city, and other borders? Have there been conflicts around those borders?

Subjects & Disciplines

Learning Objectives

Students will:

Teaching Approach

Teaching Methods

Skills Summary

This activity targets the following skills:

Connections to National Standards, Principles, and Practices

National council for social studies curriculum standards.

National Geography Standards

What You’ll Need

Materials you provide.

Resources Provided

The resources are also available at the top of the page.

Physical Space

Background Information

The Roma are a traditionally nomadic ethnic group who originated in northern India. The total global population of Roma is estimated between two to five million. They have held a presence in Europe for an estimated 1,000 years. Today, most Roma continue to live principally in Europe, particularly in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, and Romania.

The Basque ethnic group of southern Europe straddles both Spain and France in an area known as Basque Country. This region borders the Bay of Biscay and is located near the western end of the Pyrenees Mountains. Although their origins are unknown, Basques are characterized by their shared language and culture. The Basques are distinct from most European groups because the Basque language is not Indo-European.

Moldova is a country located in the northeastern corner of the Balkan region of Europe. It is bounded by Ukraine to the north, east, and south and by Romania to the west. The former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.) combined many unique cultures under one governing system. Once the country was set up, Russians moved to every area of the U.S.S.R., which created tensions between Russians and other ethnic groups when independence was achieved. Moldova became independent from the Soviet Union in 1991, and a member of the United Nations in 1992.

The island of Cyprus is located in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, south of Turkey, west of Syria, and southeast of mainland Greece. Cyprus has a long history with both Turkey and Greece. In 1960, Cyprus gained its independence from Britain, and there has been a struggle between the Turkish and Greek peoples that has lasted to the present day. Although Cyprus was recently admitted to the European Union (EU), the political division of the island prevents northern Cyprus from receiving the same level of EU benefits as the rest of the island.

Prior Knowledge

Recommended prior activities.

natural or artificial line separating two pieces of land.

a disagreement or fight, usually over ideas or procedures.

geographic territory with a distinct name, flag, population, boundaries, and government.

learned behavior of people, including their languages, belief systems, social structures, institutions, and material goods.

people sharing genetic characteristics, culture, language, religion or history.

the movement of people from one place to another.

set of sounds, gestures, or symbols that allows people to communicate.

a system of spiritual or supernatural belief.

Articles & Profiles

Tips & Modifications


The case studies can be presented orally or in writing.

Media Credits

The audio, illustrations, photos, and videos are credited beneath the media asset, except for promotional images, which generally link to another page that contains the media credit. The Rights Holder for media is the person or group credited.

Shelley Sperry, Sperry Editorial

Kim Hulse, National Geographic Society Christina Riska Simmons, National Geographic Society Emmy Scammahorn, National Geographic Society Kathleen Schwille, National Geographic Society Emily Wade, B.A. Philosophy, B.A. English

Educator Reviewers

Brian Blouet, The College of William & Mary Olwyn Blouet, Virginia State University Michal LeVasseur, Ph.D., National Geographic Alliance Network Liaison Audrey Mohan, 2007-2008 Grosvenor Scholar, National Geographic Society Ian Muehlenhaus, University of Minnesota Alexander Murphy, Professor of Geography and Rippey Chair in Liberal Arts and Sciences, Department of Geography, University of Oregon Peter Rees, University of Delaware Joseph Stoltman, Western Michigan University

Expert Reviewer

Margaret A. Legates, Coordinator, Delaware Geographic Alliance

National Geographic Program

2008 Summer Geography Institute: Beyond Borders

Special thanks to the educators who participated in National Geographic's 2008-2009 National Teacher Leadership Academy (NTLA), for testing activities in their classrooms and informing the content for all of the Beyond Borders: Using Maps to Understand European Physical and Cultural Landscapes resources.

For information on user permissions, please read our Terms of Service . If you have questions about how to cite anything on our website in your project or classroom presentation, please contact your teacher. They will best know the preferred format. When you reach out to them, you will need the page title, URL, and the date you accessed the resource.

If a media asset is downloadable, a download button appears in the corner of the media viewer. If no button appears, you cannot download or save the media.

Text on this page is printable and can be used according to our Terms of Service .


Any interactives on this page can only be played while you are visiting our website. You cannot download interactives.

Related Resources

case studies for human geography

Present Research on Physical Geography

Students use the jigsaw cooperative learning strategy to discuss and present research on four case studies of conflicts due to physical geography in Europe. Then they make generalizations about physical features and country borders in a whole-class discussion.

case studies for human geography

More Human Geography and Borders

Students research four additional examples of human geography and borders. They explore how language, culture, and religious differences affect country borders in Europe.  

case studies for human geography

Research Examples of Human Geography and Borders

Students explore how language, culture, and religious differences affect country borders in Europe. They conduct research on the Roma, the Basques, Moldova, and Cyprus.

Join our community of educators and receive the latest information on National Geographic's resources for you and your students.

Educational Resources in Your Inbox

ERIC - Institute of Education Sciences


  1. GCSE 9-1 Human Geography Case Studies Revision Pack

    case studies for human geography

  2. A Level Human Geography Case Studies

    case studies for human geography

  3. GCSE 9-1 Human Geography Case Studies Revision Pack

    case studies for human geography

  4. Human & Physical Geography Case Studies

    case studies for human geography

  5. Geography Case Studies

    case studies for human geography

  6. Geography GCSE Case Studies

    case studies for human geography


  1. How Human Geography can help students become better world citizens

  2. AP Human Geography Project

  3. Lecture 1 : Introduction to Human Geography

  4. IB Geography: Contrasting Population Structures Case Studies

  5. Geography NCERT Class 7

  6. BA, BSc, BCom 3rd Semester\\100 MCQ Most Important Question\ Human value of environmental studies


  1. What Is a Case Study?

    When you’re performing research as part of your job or for a school assignment, you’ll probably come across case studies that help you to learn more about the topic at hand. But what is a case study and why are they helpful? Read on to lear...

  2. Why Are Case Studies Important?

    Case studies are important because they help make something being discussed more realistic for both teachers and learners. Case studies help students to see that what they have learned is not purely theoretical but instead can serve to crea...

  3. What Are Some Examples of Case Studies?

    Examples of a case study could be anything from researching why a single subject has nightmares when they sleep in their new apartment, to why a group of people feel uncomfortable in heavily populated areas. A case study is an in-depth anal...

  4. AP® Human Geography

    economic development, industry, agriculture, and urban geography. [C1] Emphasis is placed on geographic models and their applications. Case studies from

  5. Paper 2

    Paper 2 – Human Geography Case studies & examples. Rio: Urban growth can bring opportunities and challenges. An example of how urban planning is.

  6. AP Human Geography: Case Studies

    AP Human Geography: Case Studies - Morocco ; Content Area: Geography. Current Events/Politics ; Subject / Country: Morocco ; Grade Level: High School (9-12)

  7. Geography Case Studies

    Coastal Erosion · Coastal Management · Coastal Deposition · Earthquakes · Ecosystems · Extreme Weather in the UK · Food Resources · Rivers.

  8. Using the Case Study Approach to Teach Human Geography

    Use of the case study approach to teaching human geography requires students to actively engage with course content by reading, analyzing, comparing, and

  9. AP Human Geography Case Studies (continue editing)

    Terms in this set (80) · Students also viewed · AP Human Geo Country Case Studies · Unit 6 Cities and Urban Land Use · International Case Studies - Conflicts Rubens

  10. Geography case studies

    Geography case studies (Human Geography (Curitiba (The BRT runs on a…: Geography case studies,

  11. Present Research on Human Geography and Borders

    Students use the jigsaw cooperative learning strategy to discuss and present research on four case studies of conflicts due to human geography in Europe.

  12. AP Human Geography

    AP Human Geography. Name: Case Studies of Human Migration. Section: Score: _____/5. Directions: Answer the following questions about specific examples of

  13. ERIC

    The tasks related to Human Geography included in the first two thematic units were analysed: Knowledge of the world in which we live; Anthroposphere - humans

  14. International Case Studies

    International Case Studies: Conflicts · AP Human Geography Projects · Outline. 11 frames · Reader view · South Asia · Balkanization · How do religion, ethnicity and